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Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Jean Calas
Calas, Jean (1698-1762), A Protestant Merchant At Tou Louse, Whose Legal Murder Is A Celebrated Case In French History, Was Born At Lacaparede, Near Chartres, On March 19, 1698. His Wife Was An Englishwoman Of French Extraction. They Had Three Sons And Three Daughters. His Son Louis Had Become A ...

Jean Galbert De Campistron
Campistron, Jean Galbert De (1656-1723), French Dramatist, Was Born At Toulouse Of Noble Family. At The Age Of 17 He Was Wounded In A Duel And Sent To Paris, Where He Became An Ardent Disciple Of Racine. In 1685 He Scored His First Success With Andronic, Which Disguised Under Other ...

Jean Jacques Regis De
Cambaceres, Jean Jacques Regis De, Duke Of Parma (1753-1824), French Statesman, Was Born At Montpellier On Oct. 18, 1753. In 1792 The Newly Organized Department Of Herault Sent Him As One Of Its Deputies To The Convention. Cam Baceres Took No Decided Part In Party Strife But Occupied Himself Mainly ...

Jean Paul Pierre Casimir Perier
Casimir-perier, Jean Paul Pierre (1847 1907 ), 5th President Of The French Republic, Was Born In Paris On Nov. 8, 1847, And Was The Grandson Of Casimir Perier, The Famous Premier Under Louis Philippe. He Represented Aube In The Chamber Of Deputies Until He Became President, And He Joined The ...

Jeanne Louise Henriette Campan
Campan, Jeanne Louise Henriette (1752 French Educator, The Companion Of Marie Antoinette, Was Born In Paris. She Was Appointed Reader To The Daughters Of Louis Xv., And Of Ter The Sacking Of The Tuileries In June 1792 Supported Herself By Establishing A School At St. Germain. The Patronage Of Hortense ...

Jewish
Jewish The Jewish Calendar In Use To-day Is Both Solar And Lunar, The Years Being Reckoned By The Sun And The Months By The Moon. In Order To Adjust The Two Systems A Month Is Intercalated In The 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, And 19th Years Of A 19-year ...

Joachim Camerarius
Camerarius, Joachim German Clas Sical Scholar, Was Born At Bamberg On April 12, 1500. In 153o He Was Sent As Deputy For Nuremberg To The Diet Of Augsburg, Where He Helped Melanchthon In Drawing Up The Confession Of Augsburg. Five Years Later He Was Commissioned By Duke Ulrich Of Wurttemberg ...

Joachim Heinrich Campe
Campe, Joachim Heinrich German Educationalist, Born At Deensen, Brunswick, Became Director Of Studies In The Philanthropin At Dessau (see Basedow). He Started An Educational Establishment Of His Own Near Hamburg, But In 1783 Gave It Up On Account Of Ill-health. In 1787 He Pro Ceeded To Brunswick As Counsellor Of ...

Joannes De Plano Carpini
Carpini, Joannes De Plano, The First Noteworthy European Explorer Of The Mongol Empire (in The 13th Century), And The Author Of The Earliest Important Western Work On Northern And Central Asia, Russian Europe And Other Regions Of The Tatar Dominion. He Appears To Have Been Born At Piano Della Magione ...

Joannes Eremita Or Joannes
Cassianus, Joannes Eremita Or Joannes Massiliensis (36o--435), A Celebrated Recluse, And One Of The Founders Of Monasticism In The West. His Early Life Was Spent In The Monastery Of Bethlehem And After Dwelling For Several Years Among The Ascetics Of The Nile Desert, In 403 He Repaired To Constantinople Where ...

Johann Benedikt Carpzov
Johann Benedikt Carpzov (1607-1657), Fourth Son Of The First Benedikt, Was Born At Rochlitz In 1607. He Became Pro Fessor Of Theology At Leipzig In 1643, Made Himself Chiefly Known By His Isagoge In Libros Ecclesiaruyn Lutheranarum Symbolicos (pub. In 1665), And Died At Leipzig On Oct. 22, 1657, Leaving ...

Johann Benedikt Carpzov_2
Johann Benedikt Carpzov (1720-1803), Great-grandson Of The First Johann Benedikt, Was Born At Leipzig, Became Professor Of Philosophy There In 1747, And In The Following Year Removed To Helmstedt As Professor Of Poetry And Greek. In 1749 He Was Named Also Professor Of Theology. He Was Author Of Various Philological ...

Johann Gottlob Carpzov
Johann Gottlob Carpzov (1679-1767), Grandson Of Johann Benedikt, Was Born At Dresden In 1679. He Was Educated At Wit Tenberg, Leipzig, And Altdorf, Became A Learned Theologian, And In 1719 Was Appointed Professor Of Oriental Languages At Leipzig. In 1730 He Was Made Superintendent And First Pastor At Lubeck. His ...

John Alden Carpenter
Carpenter, John Alden ), American Composer, Was Born At Park Ridge (ill.), On Feb. 28, 1876. He Was Educated At Harvard University, Graduating In 1897, And Joined His Father In Business In Chicago. Subsequently He Studied Music In Europe Under Elgar, And In Chicago Under Ziehn. His Compositions Include Gitanjali, ...

John Cade
Cade, John (d. 145o), Commonly Called Jack Cade, Cap Tain Of Kent And Leader Of The Rising Of 1450, May Have Been An Irishman By Birth, But Details Of His Early Life Are Scanty. After His Death The Government Asserted That He Had Lived In Sussex, Had Had To Flee ...

John Caird
Caird, John (182o-1898), Scottish Divine And Philosopher, Was Born At Greenock On Dec. 15, 1820, And Died July 3o, 1898. He Was Educated At Glasgow University, Ordained In The Church Of Scotland In 1845, And Became Professor Of Divinity At Glasgow In 1862. In 1873 He Was Appointed Vice-chancellor And ...

John Cairns
Cairns, John (1818-1892), Scottish Presbyterian Divine, Was Born At Ayton Hill, Berwickshire, On Aug. 23, 1818, The Son Of A Shepherd. He Went To School At Ayton And Oldcambus, Ber Wickshire, And Managed With Some Difficulty To Support Himself At Edinburgh University, Where He Became The Most Distinguished Student Of ...

John Caldwell Calhoun
Calhoun, John Caldwell American Statesman And Parliamentarian, Was Born In Abbeville District, S.c., On March 18, 5782. He Was Of Scotch-irish Descent, His Ancestors Who Came To America Having Settled Originally In Penn Sylvania During The First Part Of The 18th Century And Later Gone Southward Across The Mountains To ...

John Calvin
Calvin, John (1509-1564), Swiss Divine And Reformer, Was Born At Noyon, In Picardy, On July Ro, 1509, And Was The Second Son Of Gerard Cauvin Or Calvin, A Notary-apostolic And Procurator-fiscal For The Lordship Of Noyon, And Of Jeanne Le Franc, Daughter Of An Innkeeper At Cambrai. (the Family Name ...

John Cameron
Cameron, John (c. 1579-1625), Scottish Theologian, Born At Glasgow About 1579, Received His Early Education In His Native City. After Having Taught Greek In The University For 12 Months, He Went To France, Where He Lectured At Bordeaux And Sedan. He Then Travelled In Germany And Switzerland With The Sons ...

John Campbell Campbell
Campbell, John Campbell, Baron Lord Chancellor Of England, The Second Son Of The Rev. George Campbell, D.d., Was Born On Sept. 17, 1779, At Cupar, Fife. He Studied At The United College, St. Andrews. In I800 He Was Entered As A Student At Lincoln's Inn, And, After A Short Connec ...

John Campbell
Campbell, John (1708-1775), Scottish Man Of Letters, Was Born At Edinburgh On March 8, 1708, And Died On Dec. 28, He Was The Author Of Lives Of The British Admirals (4 Vols., 1742 And 1744) ; The Military History Of Prince Eugene And The Duke Of Marlborough (1736) ; And ...

John Canton
Canton, John English Physicist, Born At Stroud, Gloucestershire, On July 31, 1718, Was A Weaver's Ap Prentice, And Became A Schoolmaster In Spital Square, London. In I 749 He Read A Paper Before The Royal Society On A Method Of Making Artificial Magnets, Which Procured Him Election As A Fellow ...

John Capgrave
Capgrave, John English Chronicler And Hagiologist, Was Born At Lynn, In Norfolk, On April 21 1393. He Became A Priest, Took The Degree Of D.d. At Oxford, Where He Lectured On Theology, And Subsequently Joined The Order Of Augus Tinian Hermits. Most Of His Life He Spent In The House ...

John Carroll
Carroll, John (1735-1815) , American Roman Catholic Prelate, Was Born At Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County (md.), Jan. 8, 1735, The Son Of Wealthy Catholic Parents. He Was Educated At St. Omer's In Flanders, Becoming A Novitiate In The Society Of Jesus In 17j3, And Then At The Jesuit College ...

John Cartwright
Cartwright, John English Parlia Mentary Reformer, Was Born At Marnham In Nottinghamshire On Sept. 17, 1740, The Elder Brother Of Edmund Cartwright, Inventor Of The Power-loom. He Was Educated At Newark Grammar School And Heath Academy In Yorkshire, And Entering The Navy Served At The Capture Of Cherbourg, And In ...

John Cassell
Cassell, John (1817-1865), British Publisher, Was Born In Manchester On Jan. 23, 1817. His Father Was The Landlord Of A Public-house, And John Was Apprenticed To A Joiner. He Was Self-educated, Gaining By His Own Efforts A Considerable Acquaintance With English Literature And A Knowledge Of French. He Came To ...

John De Calcar Or
Calcar Or Kalcker, John De (1499—c. 1546), Italian Painter, Was Born At Calcar, In The Duchy Of Cleves, And Died At Naples. He Was A Disciple Of Titian At Venice, And Perfected Him Self By Studying Raphael. He Imitated Those Masters So Closely, Especially In His Portraits, As To Deceive ...

John Elliott Cairnes
Cairnes, John Elliott (1823-1875), British Polit Ical Economist Of The Classical School, Was Born At Castle Belling Ham, Co. Louth, Ireland, And Educated At Trinity College, Dublin. He Then Studied Law, And Was Called To The Irish Bar. But He Had Little Taste For The Practice Of Law, And Devoted ...

John Francis Campbell
Campbell, John Francis, Of Islay Gaelic Scholar, Was Born On Dec. 29, 1822, And Died At Cannes On Feb. 17, 1885. Educated At Eton And At Edinburgh University, He Occupied Minor Government Posts, And Employed His Leisure In Collecting, Translating And Editing The Folklore Of The Western Highlands, Taken Down ...

John Giovanni Caboto Cabot
Cabot, John (giovanni Caboto) (1450-1498), Italian Navigator And Explorer Of North America, Was Born In Genoa, But In 1461 Went To Live In Venice, Of Which He Became A Naturalized Citizen In 1476. During One Of His Trading Voyages To The Eastern Mediterranean, Cabot Visited Mecca, Then The Greatest Mart ...

John Jeffreys Pratt Camden
Camden, John Jeffreys Pratt, 2nd Earl And 1st Marquess (1759-1840), Only Son Of The 1st Earl, Was Born On Feb. 11, 1759, And Was Educated At Trinity College, Cambridge. In The Ministry Of William Pitt, Pratt, Who Entered Parliament As M.p. For Bath In 1780, Was Successively A Lord Of ...

John Tiplady Carrodus
Carrodus, John Tiplady English Violinist, Was Born On Jan. 20, 1836, At Keighley, In Yorkshire. He Made His First Appearance As A Violinist At The Age Of Nine, And Afterwards Studied At Stuttgart With Molique. He Made His Debut As A Solo Player At A Concert Given By The Musical ...

John Wall Callcott
Callcott, John Wall (1766-1821), English Mu Sician, Brother Of Sir Augustus Callcott, R.a., Was Born In Ken Sington Nov. 20, 1766, His Father Having Been A Bricklayer And Builder. His Reputation As A Composer Rests Chiefly Upon His Con Certed Vocal Works, Such As The Catch "0 Beauteous Fair," The ...

Jonathan Carver
Carver, Jonathan (1710-1780), American Traveller, Was Born In Weymouth (mass.), A Son Of David And Hannah (dyer) Carver. When He Was Eight Years Old His Family Moved To Canterbury (conn.), Where He Gained What Seems To Have Been A Fair Education, Including Something Of Surveying. Here In 1746 He Married ...

Jose Cadalso Vazquez
Cadalso Vazquez, Jose Spanish Author, Born At Cadiz, Entered The Army And Rose To The Rank Of Colonel. He Was Killed At The Siege Of Gibraltar. Cadalso Was Educated In Paris, Travelled Widely In His Youth, And Spread The Knowledge Of French And English Literature In Spain. His First Published ...

Jose Canalejas Y Mendez
Canalejas Y Mendez, Jose Spanish Politician, Was Born In Ferrol On July 31, 1854. He Graduated (1871) At The University Of Madrid, Took His Doctor's Degree (1872), And Became A Lecturer On Literature (1873). He Entered His Father's Engineering Works And Studied Railway Problems, But Continued His Literary Work, Publishing ...

Jose De Canizares
Canizares, Jose De (1676-175o), Spanish Dramatist, Was Born At Madrid On July 4, 1676, Entered The Army And Retired With The Rank Of Captain In 1702 To Act As Censor Of The Madrid Theatres, And Steward To The Duke Of Osuna. In His 14th Year Canizares Recast A Play By ...

Jose Del Campillo
Campillo, Jose Del Spanish Statesman. Under The Protection Of Patino, Who Became Prime Minister In 1726, Campillo Was Constantly Employed On Naval Administrative Work Both At Home And In America. It Was Patino's Policy To Build Up A Navy Quietly At Home And In America, Without Attract Ing Too Much ...

Jose Miguel Carrera
Carrera, Jose Miguel (1785-1821), Leader In The Early Struggle For The Independence Of Chile, And First President Of The Country, Was Born In Santiago, Chile, On Oct. 15, 1785. He Received A Military Education In Spain, And Served In The Spanish Army Against Napoleon. In July 1811 He Returned To ...

Joseph Dacre Carlyle
Carlyle, Joseph Dacre (1759-1804), British Ori Entalist, Was Born At Carlisle. He Was Appointed, In 1795, Pro Fessor Of Arabic In Cambridge University. His Translation From The Arabic Of Yusuf Ibn Taghri Birdi, The Rerum Egypticarum Annales, Appeared In 1792, And In 1796 A Volume Of Specimens Of Arabic Poetry, ...

Joseph Gurney Cannon
Cannon, Joseph Gurney American Politician, Was Born In Guilford, N.c., On May 7, 1836. In 1858 He Was Admitted To The Illinois Bar And From 1861 To 1868 He Was A State's Attorney, He Settled At Danville, Ill., Entered Politics And Was Elected Republican Representative In Congress For The Periods ...

Joseph Marie Auguste Caillaux
Caillaux, Joseph Marie Auguste (1863 ), French Politician, Was Born March 3o, 1863, At Le Mans. His Father, Eugene Caillaux, Was First A Deputy And Later Senator; He Was Minister Of Public Works From 1873 To 1875 And Minister Of Finance In The Year In 1888, After A Brilliant Academic ...

Karel Capek
Capek, Karel (189o-1938), Czech Dramatist And Novel Ist, Born At Male Svatonvice, In Bohemia (czechoslovakia), Is Perhaps Best Known As The Author Of The Successful Play R.u.r. (1920; Eng. Trans. 1923), In Which He Satirizes The Mechanical Tendencies Of Modern Civilization, And The Life Of The Insects (192i ; Eng. ...

Karlstadt Or Karolostadt Carlstadt
Carlstadt, Karlstadt Or Karolostadt. Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein (148o-1541), German Reformer, Was Born At Carlstadt, Bavaria. He Studied At The Universities Of Erfurt ) Cologne And Wittenberg, Where He Acquired Fame As A Champion Of The Scholasticism Of Thomas Aquinas. In 1513 He Became Professor Of Theology. In 1515 He Went ...

Lant Carpenter
Carpenter, Lant (178o-184o), English Unitarian Minister, Was Born At Kidderminster On Sept. 2, 1780, The Son Of A Carpet Manufacturer. In 1805 He Became A Pastor Of A Church In Exeter, Removing In 1817 To Bristol. At Both Bristol And Exeter He Was Also Engaged In School Work, Among His ...

Lazare Hippolyte Carnot
Carnot, Lazare Hippolyte French Statesman, The Second Son Of L. N. M. Carnot (q.v.), Was Born At Saint-omer On Oct. 6, 18o 1. Hippolyte Carnot Lived At First In Exile With His Father, Returning To France Only In 1823. He Wrote, In 183o, An Exposé De La Doctrine Saint-simonienne, And ...

Lewis Campbell
Campbell, Lewis (183o-19o8), British Classical Scholar, Was Born At Edinburgh On Sept. 3, 1830, And Died Oct. 25, 1908. He Was Fellow And Tutor At Queen's College, Oxford Vicar Of Milford, Hants (1858-63), And Professor Of Greek And Gifford Lecturer At The University Of St. Andrews . In 1894 He ...

Lewis Cass
Cass, Lewis American General And Statesman, Was Born At Exeter, N.h., On Oct. 9, 1782. He Was Educated At Phillips Exeter Academy, Joined His Father At Marietta, Ohio, About 1799, Studied Law There In The Office Of Return Jonathan Meigs (1765-1825), And Was Admitted To The Bar At The Age ...

Life Of The Carboniferous
Life Of The Carboniferous Period Fauna Of The Marine Strata.—numerically, The Most Im Portant Inhabitants Of The Clear Carboniferous Seas Were The Crinoids, Corals, Foraminifera And Brachiopods. Each Of These Groups Contributed At One Place Or Another Towards The Upbuilding Of Great Masses Of Limestone. For The First Time In ...

Lodovico Carracci
Carracci, Lodovico, Agostino And Anni Bale, Three Celebrated Italian Painters, Were Born At Bologna In And 1560 Respectively. They Were The Founders Of The So-called Eclectic School Of Painting,—the Principle Of Which Was To Study In The Works Of The Great Masters The Several Excel Lences For Which They Had ...

Lorenzo Campeggio
Campeggio, Lorenzo (1464-1539), Italian Cardinal, Was Born At Milan. At First He Followed A Legal Career At Pavia And Bologna. In 1510 He Went Into The Church. For His Services Dur Ing The Rebellion Of Bologna Julius Ii. Made Him Auditor Of The Rota In I5i I And Sent Him ...

Louis Cappel
Cappel, Louis (1585-1658), French Huguenot Divine And Scholar, Was Born At St. Elier, Near Sedan. He Studied Theology At Sedan And Saumur; And Arabic At Oxford, Where He Spent Two Years. In 1613 He Accepted The Chair Of Hebrew At Saumur, And In 1633 Became Professor Of Theology. As A ...

Louis Paul Cailletet
Cailletet, Louis Paul 2-1913 ), French Iron Master, Was Born At Chatillon-sur-seine On Sept. 21, 183 2. He Worked In His Father's Ironworks And Later Was In Charge Of The Works. He Was Animated By A Love Of Scientific Research. His Most Important Work Was On The Liquefaction Of Gases. ...

Lower California
California, Lower (baja California), A Long Narrow Peninsula Between The Gulf Of California And The Pacific Ocean, Forming A Territory Of The Republic Of Mexico. Its Population In 1910 Was 52,272 And In 1921 Was 62,831. Lower California Is, Geographically, A Southward Extension Of The State Of California, U.s.a., And ...

Luca Cambiasi
Cambiasi, Luca (1527-1585), Genoese Painter, Famil Iarly Known As Lucchetto Da Genova (his Surname Is Written Also Cambiaso Or Cangiagio), Was Born At Moneglia In The Genoese State, The Son Of A Painter Named Giovanni Cambiasi. At The Age Of 15 He Painted, With His Father, Some Subjects From Ovid's ...

Luigi Cadorna
Cadorna, Luigi, Count (1850-1928), Italian General, Was Born At Pallanza, Lake Maggiore, Sept. 4, 1850. His Father Was Count Raffaele Cadorna, A Distinguished Soldier Of The Wars Of The Risorgimento And The Crimea. Luigi Cadorna Entered The Army In 1866, And Served In The Infantry, In The Artillery And On ...

Luigi Cagnola
Cagnola, Luigi, Marchese (1762-1833), Italian Archi Tect, Was Born On June G, 1762, In Milan, And Died On Aug. 14, 1833, At Inverigo. He Was Sent At The Age Of 14 To The Clementine College At Rome, And Afterwards Studied Law At Pavia. He Spent Two Years In Verona And ...

Luigi Capello
Capello, Luigi (1859– ), Italian Soldier, Was Born On April 14, 1859. His Career Until He Became A General Officer Was Passed In The Infantry. During The World War He Conducted In Aug. 1916 The Attack Which Led To The Capture Of Gorizia. As Commander Of The Gorizia Zone Ii. ...

Luigi Capuana
Capuana, Luigi (1839-1915), Italian Poet And Critic, Was Born At Mines, Sicily, On May 27, 1839. His Giacinta (1879) May Be Said To Be The Earliest Of The Italian Realistic Novels. He Wrote Many Other Novels Which Found A Wide Public In Italy. They Deal With Complicated Psychological Problems, The ...

Luis De Camoens Camoes
Camoens (camoes), Luis De Portu Gal's Renowned Epic Poet And One Of The Greatest Lyric Poets Of 16th Century Europe, Was Born Either At Coimbra Or Lisbon About Or In The Year 1524. He Came Of Galician Stock, Owners Of Land Near Finisterre ; His Ancestor, The Soldier-poet Vasco Perez ...

Luisa De Carvajal
Carvajal, Luisa De (1568-1614), Spanish Mission Ary In England, Was Born At Jaraicejo In Estremadura On Jan. 3, 1568. Moved By The Execution Of The Jesuit, Henry Walpole, In 1596, She Decided To Devote Herself To The Cause Of The Faith In England. With Her Share Of The Family Fortune, ...

Marcel Cachin
Cachin, Marcel (1869— ), French Politician, One Of The Principal Leaders Of The French Communist Party, Was Born At Paimpol, Brittany, And Adopted Teaching As A Profession. He Was A Master In A Bordeaux Lycee When He Joined The Socialist Movement. His Party, Thanks To Common Action Between The Re ...

Marcus Aurelius Carausius
Carausius, Marcus Aurelius, Tyrant Or Usurper In Britain, A.d. 286-293, Was A Menapian From Belgic Gaul, A Man Of Humble Origin. In The Roman Army He Rapidly Obtained Promotion And Was Stationed By The Emperor Maximian At Gessoriacum (bononia, Boulogne) To Ward Off Frankish And Saxon Pirates. On Being Accused ...

Marcus Aurelius Carinus
Carinus, Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor, A.d. 283-84, Was The Elder Son Of The Emperor Carus, On Whose Acces Sion He Was Appointed Governor Of The Western Portion Of The Empire. He Fought With Success Against The German Tribes, But Soon Left The Defence Of The Upper Rhine To His Legates ...

Marcus Aurelius Carus
Carus, Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor A.d. Born Probably At Narbona (more Correctly, Narona) In Illyria, Was A Senator And Had Been Appointed Prefect Of The Prae Torian Guard By The Emperor Probus (q.v.), After Whose Murder He Was Proclaimed Emperor By The Soldiers. Although Carus Pun Ished The Assassins He ...

Marcus Calidius
Calidius, Marcus, Roman Orator. His First Speech Of Which We Know Was Delivered In 64 B.c. Against Gallius, Who Was Defended By Cicero, For Bribery. He Was Praetor In 57, And Spoke In Favour Of Cicero's Return And The Restoration Of His House. In The Disturbances After Clodius' Death He ...

Marcus Furius Camillus
Camillus, Marcus Furius, Roman Soldier And Statesman, Of Patrician Descent, Censor In 403 B.c. He Triumphed Four Times, Was Five Times Dictator, And Was Honoured With The Title Of Second Founder Of Rome. Mommsen Sums Up His Place In History By Describing Him As One Who "first Opened Up To ...

Marie Anne De Cupis
Camargo, Marie Anne De Cupis De (1710 1770), French Dancer, Of Spanish Descent, Was Born In Brussels On April 15, 1710, The Daughter Of A Violinist And Dancing-master. At Ten Years Of Age She Was Given Lessons By Mlle. Francoise Prevost (168o-1741), Then The First Dancer At The Paris Opera, ...

Marie Francois Sadi Sad
Carnot, Marie Francois Sadi (sad') (1837 4th President Of The 3rd French Republic, Son Of L. Hippo Lyte Carnot, Was Born At Limoges On Aug. Ii, 183 7. He Was Edu Cated At The Ecole Polytechnique And The Ecole Des Ponts Et Chaussves, And Then Obtained An Appointment In The ...

Mario Di Calasio
Calasio, Mario Di (1550-162o), Italian Franciscan, Was Born At Calasio, In The Abruzzi. Joining The Franciscans At An Early Age, He Devoted Himself To Oriental Languages And Be Came An Authority On Hebrew. He Was Appointed By Paul V., Whose Confessor He Was, To The Chair Of Scripture At Ara ...

Martianus Minneus Felix Capella
Capella, Martianus Minneus Felix, Latin Writer, According To Cassiodorus A Native Of Madaura, In Africa, Flourished During The 5th Century, Certainly Before The Year 439. He Appears To Have Practised As A Lawyer At Carthage. His Curious Work, Entitled Satyrical, Or De Nuptiis Philologiae Et Mercurii Et De Septem Artibus ...

Mary Carpenter
Carpenter, Mary Educational And So Cial Reformer, Was Born On April 3, 1807, At Exeter, The Daughter Of Dr. Lant Carpenter. She Was Educated In Her Father's School For Boys, Learning Latin, Greek And Mathematics, And Other Subjects At That Time Not Generally Taught To Girls. In 1829 She And ...

Mary Cassatt
Cassatt, Mary (1855-1926), American Artist, Was Born At Pittsburgh, (pa.), A Sister Of A. J. Cassatt, President Of The Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1875 She Went To Europe To Study Art, Spending Some Time In Spain, Afterwards Proceeding To Paris, Where She Was Greatly Influenced By Manet, Renoir, Degas And The ...

Maya And Mexican Maya
Maya And Mexican Maya Calendar As This Was The Basis Of The Mexican And Allied Calendars, It Is Here Treated First. It Appears At First Sight Very Complex, But Is Fairly Simple And Is Admirable From Its Symmetrical Complete Ness. Every Maya Date Is Expressed By Two Numbers And Two ...

Mediaeval Legends
Mediaeval Legends In The Middle Ages The Story Of Caesar Did Not Undergo Such Extraordinary Transformations As Befell The History Of Alexander The Great And The Theban Legend. Lucan Was Regularly Read In Mediaeval Schools, And The General Facts Of Caesar's Life Were Too Well Known. He Was Generally, By ...

Megalithic Monuments
Megalithic Monuments Alignments Of Standing Stones, Isolated Menhirs, Chambered Mounds, And "dolmens" Denuded Of Their Mounds, Survive In The Carnac District In Greater Number And Variety Than Anywhere Else. (see Figure For Relationship To.sea-coast And Deep Water Inlets.) The Societe Polymathique Du Morbihan (museum At Vannes) Started Excavating Them Nearly ...

Melchior Cano
Cano, Melchior Spanish Theologian, Born At Tarancon, New Castile, Joined The Dominican Order In 1523 And Succeeded To The Theological Chair In The University Of Sala Manca. He Violently Opposed Bartolome De Carranza, Also A Do Minican And Afterwards Archbishop Of Toledo, And Took Part In Condemning Him For Heresy. ...

Mensuration
Mensuration. ...

Metallic Carbonyls
Carbonyls, Metallic, Are Compounds Of The Metals With Carbon Monoxide. Of These The Most Important Is Nickel Carbonyl, Used In The Manufacture Of Pure Nickel. This Substance Is Readily Produced By Passing Carbon Monoxide Over Finely Divided Nickel At 3o-5o° C, And Is Condensed In A Freezing Mixture Of Ice ...

Mexican Calendar
Mexican Calendar The Aztec System Is The Same As The Maya, But The Names And Glyphs Are Different. The Day Names Are :— Falls In Month On The Days Cipactli Miquiztli Ozomatli Cozcaquauhtli 4 9 14 19 Ehecatl Mazatl Mallinalli 011in 5 Io 15 20 Calli Tochtli Acatl Tecpatl I ...

Michel De Castelnau
Castelnau, Michel De, Sieur De La Mauvissiere (c. 1520-1592), French Soldier And Diplomatist, Was Born In Touraine. After Some Service In The French Army In Italy He Entered The Service Of The Cardinal Of Lorraine. He Was Employed On A Series Of Important Diplomatic Missions, And After The Death Of ...

Michelangelo Amerighi Caravaggio
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Amerighi (or Merigi) Da (1569-1609), Italian Painter, The Son Of A Mason, Was Born In The Village Of Caravaggio, In Lombardy, From Which He Received His Name. He Painted Portraits For About Five Years At Milan, And Then Went To Venice And To Rome, Where He Produced His ...

Miguel Casiri
Casiri, Miguel (1710-1791), A Learned Maronite, Was Born At Tripoli (syria). He Studied At Rome, Where He Lectured On Arabic, Syriac And Chaldee. In 1748 He Went To Spain, And In 1763 He Became Principal Librarian At The Escorial, A Post Which He Appears To Have Held Until His Death. ...

Modern Canal Development In
Modern Canal Development In Europe And America Accounts Of The Canal Systems Will Be Found In The Articles On The Various Countries : In This Section Some Modern Develop Ments In Connection With Canals And Canalized Rivers Are Briefly Referred To. ...

Moritz Cantor
Cantor, Moritz German Mathematician, Was Born At Mannheim On Aug. 23, 1829. He Studied Mathematics At Heidelberg, Gottingen And Berlin. In 1853 He Became A Tutor And In 1863 Professor Of Mathematics At Heidelberg. At A Scien Tific Meeting At Bonn He Read A Paper On Ramus, Stifel And Car ...

Moritz Carriere
Carriere, Moritz (1817-1895), German Philosopher And Historian, Was Born At Griedel In Hesse Darmstadt. He Studied At Giessen, Gottingen, And Berlin, Taught Philosophy At Giessen, And In 1853 Was Appointed Professor At The University Of Munich, Where He Lectured Mainly On Aesthetics. An Avowed Enemy Of Ultramontanism, He Helped To ...

Muslim
Muslim The Era Of The Hejira, Commonly Called The Mohammedan Era, Is Used Principally In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, Egypt And Some Parts Of India. The Era Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mohammed From Mecca To Medina. This Day Was Thursday, July 16 ...

Niccolo Cassana
Cassana, Niccolo (1659-1714), Often Called Nrco Letto, Italian Painter, Was Born At Venice, And Became A Disciple Of His Father, Giovanni Francesco Cassana, A Genoese, Who Had Been A Pupil Of Bernardino Strozzi ("il Prete Genovese"). Having Painted Portraits Of The Florentine Court And Of Some Of The English Nobility, ...

Nicolas Le Camus De
Camus De Mezieres, Nicolas Le French Architect, Was Born At Paris On March 26, 1721, And Died There On July 27, 1789. He Published Several Works On Architec Tural And Related Subjects, Including Dissertation . . . En Reponse An Memoire De M. Paris Du Verney, Sur La Theorie Et ...

Nicolas Leonhard Sadi Carnot
Carnot, Nicolas Leonhard Sadi (1796-1832)', French Physicist, Elder Son Of L. N. M. Carnot, Was Born At Paris. He Was Admitted To The Ecole Polytechnique In 1812, And Late In He Left With A Commission In The Engineers And With Pros Pects Of Rapid Advancement In His Profession. But Waterloo ...

Nicolaus Cabasilas
Cabasilas, Nicolaus (d. 1371), Byzantine Mystic And Theologian. In 1355 He Succeeded His Uncle Nilus Cabasilas, Like Himself, A Determined Opponent Of The Union Of The Greek And Latin Churches, As Archbishop Of Thessalonica. In The Hesy Chast Controversy He Took The Side Of The Monks Of Athos But Refused ...

Nikodem Caro
Caro, Nikodem (1871— ), German Chemist, Was Born May 23, 1871, At Lodz. He Studied At Berlin University And At The Technical High School, Charlottenburg, And Founded A Public Chemical Laboratory. He Was Engaged In Agricultural Research Work, And Experimented On Peat As A Source Of Power. He Inter Ested ...

Operations In Cameroons
Cameroons, Operations In. The German Forces In The Protectorate At The Outbreak Of The World War Were Com Manded By Colonel Zimmerman, An Able And Resolute Soldier, And Consisted Of Approximately 200 Europeans And 1,55o Natives In The Military Force And 4o Europeans And 1,255 Natives In The Police Force. ...

Opuntia
Opuntia, The Prickly Pear Or Indian Cactus, Is A Large Group, Comprising Some 25o Species, Or More, Found In North America, The West Indies And South Amer Ica, Extending As Far As Chile. Some Have Been Introduced Into Australia With Disastrous Effects, Since They Have Overrun Large Tracts Of Country. ...

Or Spanish Flies Cantharides
Cantharides, Or Spanish Flies, The Common Blister Beetles (cantharis Vesicatoria) Of European Pharmacy, Are Bright, Iridescent, Golden-green Or Bluish-coloured Beetles (see Coleop Tera), From Half-an-inch To An Inch In Length, Found In The South Of Europe. Cantharides Owe Their Value To The Presence Of A Chemical Prin Ciple (cantharidin). Cantharidin ...

Otto Von Camphausen
Camphausen, Otto Von Prussian Statesman, Born At Hiinshoven On Oct. 21, 1812, Was Edu Cated At Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin And Munich. After A Distin Guished Career In Law, He Became A Councillor In The Ministry Of Finance In 1845 And In 1869 Was Appointed Minister. He Had Been A Member ...

P E D R
Campomanes, P E D R O Rodriguez, Conde De (1723-1802), Spanish Statesman And Writer, Was Born At Santa Eulalia De Sorribia, Asturias. From 1788 To 1793 He Was President Of The Council Of Castile ; But On The Accession Of Charles Iv. He Retired From Public Life, Regretted By The ...

Pablo Casals
Casals, Pablo ), Eminent Violoncellist, Corn Poser And Conductor, Was Born At Vendrell, Near Barcelona, Dec. 3o, 1876. He Received His First Musical Instruction From His Father, An Organist, Later Becoming A Pupil Of Jose Garcia At The Barcelona Conservatoire And Then Studying At Madrid. He Made His First Public ...

Palaeography And Stratigraphy
Palaeography And Stratigraphy Tournaisian.—the Carboniferous Period Opened In Western Europe With The Northward Advance Of The Pre-existing Devonian Seas Over The Old Devonian Land Surface. In England And Wales, So Far As Is Known, Comparatively Little Of The Present Land Area Was Submerged. The Bulk If Not The Whole Of ...