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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 7, Part 2: Damascus to Education in Animals

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Dynamics
Dynamics, A Branch Of Mechanics. The Term Is Usually Applied (as Here) To The Study Of The Motion Of Matter, But Sometimes It Includes Statics, Which Is Concerned With Matter At Rest. The Fundamental Equation.if We Were To Consider A Material System Isolated In Space It Would Theoretically Be Possible ...

Dynamism
Dynamism (gr. Bvvais, Power), Is The Name Coined By A. Van Gennep For That Attitude Of The Primitive Mind Towards The Sacred Or Occult Which Involves A Prevailing Sense Of Its Pe Culiar Power Or Mana. He Is Careful Not To Impute To The Savage A Theology In Which Any ...

Dynamite
Dynamite, A High Explosive Consisting Essentially Of Nitro Glycerine Absorbed In An Inert Solid Material In Order To Reduce Its Sensitivity To Shock. The Most Frequently Used Absorbent Is Kie Selguhr (an Infusorial Earth), And An Average Composition Is Nitro Glycerine 75%, Kieselguhr 25%. Gelatine Dynamite Consists Of Nitroglycerine 75%, ...

Dynamo Electric Machines
Dynamo-electric Machines : See Electric Gen Erator, Motor, Electric, And Electrical Articles. ...

Dynamometer
Dynamometer, An Instrument For Measuring Force Ex Erted By Men, Animals And Machines. (gr. Bvvapts, Strength, And L2 Tpov, A Measure). The Name Has Been Applied Generally To All Kinds Of Instruments Used In The Measurement Of A Force, As For Example Electric Dynamometers, But The Term Specially Denotes Apparatus ...

Dynamotor
Dynamotor, An Electrical Machine Which When Set In Motion By Mechanical Means Generates Electricity, And Which, Without Any Alteration, Is Capable Of Doing Mechanical Work When Supplied With An Electric Current. Its Action Is Thus Reversible. (see Electric Generator And Motors, Electric.) ...

Dynaphone
Dynaphone, One Of The Latest Additions To The Resources Of The Modern Orchestral Composer. Described, Not Too Enlighten Ingly, As "an Apparatus For The Emission Of Sound Waves," It Has Been Utilized By The French Composer, Arthur Honegger, In A Ballet Entitled "roses En Metal." ...

Dynasty
Dynasty, A Family Or Line Of Rulers, A Succession Of Sover Eigns Of A Country Belonging To A Single Family Or Tracing Their Descent To A Common Ancestor (gr. Bvvaeeta, Sovereignty). The Term Is Particularly Used In The History Of Ancient Egypt As A Convenient Means Of Arranging The Chronology. ...

Dyne
Dyne, The Unit Of Force In The Centimetre-gram-second Sys Tem. It Is The Force Which, Acting On One Gram, Produces An Acceleration Of One Centimetre Per Second Per Second : It Is I/g The Gravitational Unit Of Force Which Is The Weight Of One Gram, G Being The Acceleration Due ...

Dysart
Dysart, Royal Burgh And Seaport, Fifeshire, Scotland, On The Shore Of The Firth Of Forth, 2 M. N.e. Of Kirkcaldy By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1921) 4,598. Many Ancient Houses In High Street Bear Inscriptions And Dates. Scarcely Anything Is Left Of The Old Chapel Dedicated To St. Dennis, Which For ...

Dysentery
Dysentery. A Disease Which In Man Is Characterized By The Passage Of Blood And Mucus, The Bloody Flux Of Former Times. It Results From The Superficial And Deep Ulcerative Action Of Certain Protozoal And Bacterial Micro-organisms, Primarily Upon The Large Bowel And Particularly Its Lower Part. As Dysentery May Be ...

Dyspepsia Or Indigestion
Dyspepsia Or Indigestion, A Term Vaguely Given To A Group Of Pathological Symptoms. Dyspepsia May Occur In Almost Any Organic Disease Of Moment, Particularly If It Involves The Ali Mentary Canal, But Here The Term Is Used To Describe Derangement Of The Natural Process Of Digestion, Without Obvious Change In ...

Dysprosium
Dysprosium Is A Metallic Element Belonging To The Rare Earth Group. In 1886 De Boisbaudran Deposited A Sealed Paper With The Academie Des Sciences; This Was Opened At A Later Date And Read At The Writer's Request. It Contained The Statement That A New Element Possessing A Characteristic Absorption Spec ...

Dysteleology
Dysteleology, A Modern Word Invented By Haeckel (evolution Of Man) For The Doctrine Of Purposelessness, As Op Posed To The Philosophical Doctrine Of Design (teleology). ...

Eadbald
Eadbald (ed'bawld) (d. 64o), King Of Kent, Succeeded On The Death Of His Father Aethelbert In 616. He Had Not Been Influenced By The Teaching Of The Christian Missionaries, And On His Accession He Followed The Heathen Custom And Married His Father's Widow. After His Subsequent Conversion By Laurentius, Archbishop ...

Eadmer Or Edmer
Eadmer Or Edmer (c. Io6oi I24), English Historian And Ecclesiastic, Was Probably Of English Parentage. At The Monastery Of Christ Church, Canterbury, He Met Anselm, To Whom He Served As Assistant When Anselm Became Archbishop Of Canterbury In 1093. In 1120 He Was Nominated Archbishop Of St. Andrew's, But The ...

Eagle Grove
Eagle Grove, A City Of Wright County, Iowa, U.s.a., Near The Boone River, 8o M. N. By W. Of Des Moines. It Is Served By The Chicago And North Western And The Chicago Great Western Railways. The Population In 193o Federal Census Was 4,071. It Is A Railroad Division Point, ...

Eagle Owl
Eagle Owl (bubo Bubo), A Big Owl Inhabiting Europe And Asia, Though Only A Straggler In Most Of Great Britain, And Char Acterized By Its Large Size And The Two Tufts Of Feathers On The Head. It Is Allied To The Great Horned Owl (b. Virginianus) Of North America, But ...

Eagle Pass
Eagle Pass, A City Of South-western Texas, U.s.a., On The Rio Grande, Opposite Piedras Negras, Mexico ; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Maverick County. It Is Served By The Southern Pacific Railway. The Population In 192o Was 5,765, Of Whom 2,711 Were Foreign-born White; 1930 It ...

Eagle
Eagle, The Name Given To The Larger Diurnal Birds Of Prey Which Are Not Vultures And Which Form The Sub-family Aquilinae. They Inhabit All Regions Of The World. Some Seven Or Eight Spe Cies Inhabit Europe, Of Which Only One Is Now Resident In Britain. The Golden Eagle (aquila Chry ...

Eaglehawk
Eaglehawk, A Mining Township Of Bendigo County, Vic Toria, Australia, 105 M. By Rail N.n.w. Of Melbourne And 4 M. From Bendigo. Pop. 3,789. It Stands On The Bendigo Gold-bearing Reef, And Its Mines Are Important. It Has Also Spin Ning Mills, A Brewery, Cordial Works And A Plaster Sheet ...

Eagre
Eagre, An Unusually High Tide Wave Rushing Up An Estuary (see Bore), Used Locally In Relation To The Humber And The Trent. Eakins, Thomas (1844-1916), American Portrait And Figure Painter, Was Horn At Philadelphia (pa.), On July A Pupil Of J. L. Gerome, In The Ecole Des Beaux-arts, Paris, And ...

Earl Marshal
Earl Marshal, In England, Ranks As The Eighth Of The Great Officers Of State, Is The Head Of The College Of Arms, And Ap Points The Kings-of-arms, Heralds, And Pursuivants. He Attends The Sovereign In Opening And Closing The Session Of Parliament, Walking At His Or Her Right Hand. He ...

Earl
Earl, A Title And Rank Of Nobility (corresponding To Lat. Comes; Fr. Comte), Now The Third In Order Of The British Peerage, Between Marquess And Viscount. Earl Is The Oldest Title And Rank Of English Nobles, And Was The Highest Until 1337, When The Black Prince Was Created Duke Of ...

Earls Dorset
Dorset, Earls, Marquesses And Dukes Of, English Titles One Or More Of Which Had Been Borne By The Families Of Beaufort, Grey And Sackville. About 1070 Osmund, Or Osmer, An Alleged Son Of Henry, Count Of Sees, By A Sister Of William The Conqueror, Is Said To Have Been Created ...

Earlston
Earlston (formerly Ercildoune, Of Which It Is A Corrup Tion), Parish And Market Town, Berwickshire, Scotland. Pop. 1,689. It Is On Leader Water In Lauderdale, 7 2 1 M. S.e. Of Edinburgh By The L.n.e.r. Branch Line From Reston Junction To St. Boswells, And About 4 M. N.e. Of Melrose. ...

Early Closing Movement
Early Closing Movement. The Early Closing Association Came Into Existence In Great Britain Following A Meet Ing Of Drapers' Assistants Held At The Commercial Tavern, Holborn, In Oct. 1842. A Resolution Was Then Passed "that The Present Hours Of Business Are Longer Than Either The Convenience Or The Neces Sities ...

Early English Period
Early English Period, In Architecture, The First Of The Three Divisions Into Which The English Gothic Style Is Usually Divided. Although Originally The Term Was Applied To English Gothic Up To The Beginning Of The 14th Century (as By Rickman And R. P. Spiers), It Is Now More Customarily Limited ...

Earn
Earn, A Loch And River, Perthshire, Scotland. The Loch Is M. Long East To West And / M. In Maximum Breadth. It Discharges By The River Earn. On Its Shores Are Lochearnhead (at The South Ern Extremity Of Glen Ogle), Which Has A Station On The Railway From Perth To ...

Earnest
Earnest, The Payment Of A Sum Of Money By The Buyer Of Goods To The Seller On The Conclusion Of A Bargain As A Pledge For Its Due Performance. It Is Almost Similar To The Arrha Of The Roman Law. Apart From Its Survival As A Custom, Its Chief Im ...

Earring
Earring, An Ornament Worn Pendent From The Ear, And Generally Suspended (especially Among The More Civilized Races) By Means Of A Ring Or Hook Passing Through The Pendulous Lobe Of The Ear. Among Savage Races The Impulse To Decorate, Or At Any Rate To Modify The Appearance Of The Ear, ...

Earth Currents
Earth Currents. Our Knowledge Of Earth Currents Dates From The Introduction Of Telegraphy. Ordinary Telegraph Lines Are Traversed By Natural Electric Currents Which Occasionally Interfere Seriously With Their Use. It Is These Currents Which We Shall Mainly Consider Here. There Are, However, Electric Currents Arising From Electro-chemical Action In Mineral ...

Earth Nut
Earth-nut, The English Name For Conopodium Denuda Tum, A Member Of The Family Umbelliferae, Which Has A Brown, Tuber-like Root-stock The Size Of A Chestnut. It Grows In Woods And Fields, Has A Slender, Flexuous, Smooth Stem 2 To 3 Ft. High, Much-divided Leaves, And Small White Flowers In Many-rayed, ...

Earth Pillar
Earth Pillar, A Column Of Soft Rock, Or Earth, Which Has Not A Homogeneous Structure Throughout, But Contains Large Blocks Embedded In Much Finer Material. By Exposure To Con Ditions Of Denudation, Especially Rain Action, The Large Blocks Protect The Material Beneath And So, By Differential Action, The Earth Pillars ...

Earth
Earth. In The Present Article We Shall Treat The Subject Matter Of The Earth As A Planet Under The Following Headings: 0) Size, Mass, Density And Form, (2) Movements, (3) Constitu Tion, (4) Age Of The Earth, And (5) Earth's Thermal History. ...

Earthenware
Earthenware, A Term Generally Associated With A Coarser Type Of Domestic Pottery, Although Such Cups And Saucers And Other Table Ware Of Thin Pottery, Are Often Called China (q.v.) In Error. Earthenware Can Be Made Almost As Thin As China, But It Lacks Translucency ; It Is Opaque. Its Chief ...

Earthquake
Earthquake. Though, From Very Early Times, The Chief Phenomena Of Earthquakes Have Been Well-known, It Was Not Until The Middle Of The 19th Century That The Science Dealing With Them Received A Name. In 1858, The Term Seismology Was Introduced By Robert Mallet. "the Observation Of The Facts Of Earthquakes ...

Earthshine
Earthshine. The Earth Is A Luminary To The Moon As The Moon Is To The Earth ; Consequently The Portion Of The Moon's Disc Which Is Not Illuminated By The Sun Is Illuminated By Earth Shine Analogous To Moonlight. It Is A Familiar Observation That When The Moon Is A ...

Earwig
Earwig, An Insect Belonging To The Family For Ficulidae Of The Order Dermaptera. It Is Characterized By The Very Short Leathery Fore-wings, Or Tegmina, And The Large Semi-circular Mem Branous Hind Wings Which Have Highly Modified Veins Disposed In A Radial Manner. When The Insect Is At Rest The Hind ...

Easel
Easel, A Support For A Picture, Painting Or Other Work Of Art. Many Types Of Ornate Easels Are Also Used For The Display Of Works Of Arts, Announcements, Etc. In Construction, Easels Are Divided Generally Into Two Classes: Those Of Light Construction, The So-called "sketching Easels," And The Heavier Type, ...

Easement
Easement, In Law, Signifies A Right Of Accommodation, Or Limited Right Of Use Over Land Belonging To Another. It Is Distin Guished From Profit A Prendre Since An Easement Confers Merely A Convenience To Be Exercised Over The Land Of Another Without Any Participation In The Profits Of It. Thus ...

East Anglia
East Anglia, One Of The Kingdoms Into Which Anglo Saxon Britain Was Divided. Bede Gives No Information About Its Origin Except That Its Earliest Settlers Were Angles. The Kingdom Of East Anglia Comprised The Two Counties Of Norfolk And Suf Folk, With A Western Boundary Probably Formed By The Fens ...

East Chicago
East Chicago, A City Of Lake County, Indiana, U.s.a., On Lake Michigan, Adjoining Hammond And Whiting, And Tom. S.e.. Of The Chicago "loop." It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio Chicago Terminal, The Chicago, South Shore And South Bend (electric), The Elgin, Joliet And Eastern, The Indiana Harbor Belt, ...

East Cleveland
East Cleveland, A City Of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, U.s.a., On The New York Central Railroad, Adjoining Cleveland. It Is A Rapidly Growing Residential Suburb. The Population In Creased From 2,757 In 190o To 27,292 In 192o, And Was 39,667 In 193o. It Has A City-manager Form Of Government. ...

East Conemaugh
East Conemaugh, A Borough Of Cambria County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Conemaugh River And The Pennsylvania Railroad, 3m. N.e. Of Johnstown. Pop. (1920) 5,256 (23% Foreign-born White) ; 4,979. ...

East Grinstead
East Grinstead, A Market Town In The East Grinstead Parliamentary Division Of East Sussex, England, 3o M. S. By E. From London By The Southern Railway. Pop. Of Urban District 7,901 East Grinstead Is A Junction Station With Branch Lines To Groombridge (connecting With The Tunbridge Wells And Uckfield Lines), ...

East Ham
East Ham, A Municipal, County And Parliamentary Borough Of Essex, England, 6 M. E. By N. Of London Bridge, On The District, L.m.s. And L.n.e. Railways. Pop. (1931) 142,460, Area 3,324 Ac. East Ham Extends From Wanstead Flats On The North To The Royal Albert Docks And The Thames At ...

East India Company
East India Company, An Incorporated Company For Exploiting The Trade With India And The Far East. In The 17th And I8th Centuries East India Companies Were Established By England, Holland, France, Denmark, Scotland, Spain, Austria, And Sweden. The English, The Most Important Of These, Survived Until It Handed Over Its ...

East Indies
East Indies, A Name Formerly Applied Vaguely, In Its Widest Sense, To The Whole Area Of India, Further India And The Malay Archipelago, In Distinction From The West Indies, Which, At The Time Of Their Discovery, Were Taken To Be The Extreme Parts Of The Indian Region. The Term "east ...

East Liverpool
East Liverpool, A City Of Columbiana County, O., U.s.a., 44m. W. By N. Of Pittsburgh, On The Ohio River, Opposite Newell And Chester, West Virginia. It Is On The Lincoln Highway, And Is Served By The Pennsylvania Railroad, Interurban Trolleys And Motor Buses And River Steamboats. The Population Was 21,411 ...

East London
East London, A Town Of South Africa 33 3' S., 2 7 55' E. Its Population, Including That Of The Suburbs, Such As Cambridge, 4 Miles Away, Included 28,195 Europeans (1933) And, In 1921, About 11,600 Natives, 2,006 Coloured Persons And 692 Asiatics. The Town Is Situated At The ...

East Lothian Or Haddingtonshire
East Lothian Or Haddingtonshire, A South Eastern County Of Scotland, Bounded North By The Firth Of Forth, North-east By The North Sea, East And South By Berwickshire, And South-west And West By Edinburghshire. It Covers An Area Of 170, 971 Acres. The Sea Coast Measures 41 Miles. On Parts Of ...

East Moline
East Moline, A City Of Rock Island County, Ill., U.s.a., On The Mississippi River, Adjoining Moline. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Rock Island, And The Davenport, Rock Island And Northwestern Railways. The Population Was 8,675 In 1920 (28% Foreign-born White), And ...

East Orange
East Orange, A City Of Essex County, New Jersey, 11m. W. Of New York City, Adjoining Newark. It Is Served By The Erie And The Lackawanna Railways, And By Interurban Trolley And Motor-coach Lines. The Population Was 50,710 In 1920 (82% Native White) And Was 68,020 In 1930 By The ...

East Palestine
East Palestine, A City Of Columbiana County, Ohio, U.s.a., On The Pennsylvania Railroad, Near The Eastern Boundary Of The State, 20m. S. By E. Of Youngstown, Pop. (1920), 5,75o; 1930 It Was 5,215. Coal. Fire Clay And Oil-shales Abound; It Has Manufactures Of Automobile Tyres, Chinaware, Electrical Refrac Tories And ...

East Pittsburgh
East Pittsburgh, A Borough Of Allegheny County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Monongahela River, 12m. S.e. Of Pittsburgh. It Is Served By The Bessemer And Lake Erie, The Pennsylvania, The Pittsburgh And Lake Erie, And The Union Railways. The Popula Tion Was 6,527 In 1920 (3o% Foreign-born White), And Was 6,214 ...

East Point
East Point, City Of Fulton County, Georgia, U.s.a., 4m. From The Southern Boundary Of Atlanta; Served By The Atlanta And West Point And The Central Of Georgia Railways. The Popula Tion Was 5,241 In 1920, And 9,512 In 1930 By The Federal Census. It Is A Residential And Industrial Suburb, ...

East Providence
East Providence, A Town Of Providence County, Rhode Island, U.s.a., On The East Side Of The Seekonk And Providence Rivers, Opposite Providence. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 1930 Was There Are Four Sections Of The Town : Watchemoket, The Largest ...

East Prussia
East Prussia, The Detached Easternmost Province Of The Land Of Prussia, Bounded North-west By The Baltic Sea. North And East By Lithuania, South By Poland, West By The Territory Of The Free City Of Danzig. Area, 14,283 Sq. Miles. Pop. (1933) Density 163 Per Sq. Mile. It Is Part Of ...

East Saint Louis
East Saint Louis, A City Of St. Clair County, Ill., U.s.a., On The Mississippi River, Opposite Saint Louis, With Which It Is Con Nected By Three Great Steel Bridges; One Of The Great Railway Centres Of The Country And An Important Manufacturing City. It Is The Focus Of 21 Railroads ...

East Stroudsburg
East Stroudsburg, A Borough Of Monroe County, Pa., U.s.a., Adjoining Stroudsburg (q.v.) And Tom. N. Of Easton, Surrounded By The Beautiful Scenery Of The Kittatinny And The Pocono Mountains. It Is Served By The Delaware Valley, The Erie, The Lackawanna, The New York, Susquehanna And Western, And The Pennsylvania Railways. ...

Eastbourne
Eastbourne, A Watering-place And Municipal And County Borough In The Eastbourne Parliamentary Division Of East Sussex, England, 65a M. S.s.e. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. 57,435 (augmented In The Holiday Season By Visitors). The Long Range Of The South Downs Terminates Here In The Lofty Head Land Of ...

Easter Island
Easter Island, Also Known As Rapanui Or Te Pito Te Henua, Situated In 27 1o' S. Lat. And 109 26' W. Long., About 2,000m. From The Coast Of Chile And ',mom. Oom. From Pitcairn, The Nearest Inhabited Island To The West, Is The Most Easterly And Most Isolated Outpost Of ...

Easter
Easter, The Annual Festival Observed Throughout Christen Dom In Commemoration Of The Resurrection Of Jesus Christ. The Name Easter, Like The Names Of The Days Of The Week, Is A Survival From The Old Teutonic Mythology. According To Bride (de Temp. Rat. C. Xv.) It Is Derived From Eostre, Or ...

Eastern Bengal And Assam
Eastern Bengal And Assam, A Former Province Of British India, Which Was In 19o5 Constituted Out Of Assam And The Eastern Portion Of Bengal, Viz., The Divisions Of Dacca, Chitta Gong And Rajshahi (except Darjeeling, The District Of Malda And The State Of Hill Tippera [now Tripuna] ). The Capital ...

Easthampton
Easthampton, A Town Of Hampshire County, Massa Chusetts, U.s.a., In The Connecticut River Valley, 17 M. N.w. Of Springfield, Just West Of Mount Tom. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine And The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railways. Pop. (1920) 11,261; And In 1930 It Was 11,323. ...

Easthampton_2
Easthampton, A Town Of Suffolk County, New York, Occupying The Peninsula Of Montauk At The E. End Of Long Island; Served By The Long Island Railroad. The Population In 193o Was 6,569. The Scenery Is Varied And Picturesque, And There Are Many Summer Homes And Hotels. Montauk Lighthouse, On Turtle ...

Eastland
Eastland, A City Of Texas, U.s.a., 9om. W. By S. Of Fort Worth; The County Seat Of Eastland County. It Is On Federal Highway 8o, And Is Served By The Eastland, Wichita Falls And Gulf And The Texas And Pacific Railways. In 191 O The Population Was 855 ; In ...

Eastman Kodak Company
Eastman Kodak Company, Manufacturer Of Pho Tographic Equipment And Materials, With Plants In The United States, Canada, England, France, Germany, Hungary And Aus Tralia, And Retail Outlets On All The Different Continents, Supplies Kodaks, Cine-kodaks, Studio Cameras, Lenses; Kodak, Cine Kodak, Professional, X-ray Film And The Bulk Of Standard Motion ...

Easton
Easton, A City Of Eastern Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Delaware River, At The Mouth Of The Lehigh And Bushkill Rivers, Opposite Phillipsburg, N.j., And 6om. N. Of Philadelphia; The County Seat Of Northampton County. It Is On Federal Highways 22 And 611; Is Served By The Central Of New Jersey, ...

Eastport
Eastport, A City Of Washington County, Maine, Occupying Moose Island, In Passamaquoddy Bay; A Port Of Entry And The Most Easterly City Of The United States. It Is Served By The Maine Central Railroad And By Steamer Lines And Ferries. The Population Was 4,494 In 1920; 1930 It Was 3,466. ...

Eau Claire
Eau Claire (o' Klar'), A City Of North-western Wisconsin, U.s.a., 75m. E. Of Saint Paul, On The Chippewa River At The Mouth Of The Eau Claire ; The County Seat Of Eau Claire County. It Is On Federal Highways Io, 12 And 53, And Is Served By The Chicago And ...

Eau De Cologne
Eau De Cologne, A Perfume, So Named From The City Of Cologne, Where Its Manufacture Was First Established By An Italian, Johann (or Giovanni) Maria Farina (1685-1766), Who Settled At Cologne In 1709. The Perfume Gained A High Reputation By 1766, And Farina Associated Himself With His Nephew, To Whose ...

Eau De Vie
Eau De Vie: See Brandy. A Watering-place Of South-western France, In The Department Of Basses-pyrenees, 31 M. S.e. Of The Small Town Of Laruns, The Latter Being 24 M. S. Of Pau By Rail. Pop. 453, Commune 455. Eaux-bonnes Stands At A Height Of 2,460 Ft. At The Mouth Of ...

Eaves
Eaves (not A Plural Form As Is Sometimes Supposed, But Singular), In Architecture, The Projecting Edge Of A Sloping Roof, Which Overhangs The Face Of The Wall So As To Throw Off The Water. ...

Eavesdrip Or Eavesdrop
Eavesdrip Or Eavesdrop, That Width Of Ground Around A House Or Building Which Receives The Rain Water Dropping From The Eaves. By An Ancient Saxon Law, A Landowner Was For Bidden To Erect Any Building At Less Than 2ft. From The Boundary Of His Land, And Was Thus Prevented From ...

Ebbw Vale
Ebbw Vale, Urban District, Monmouthshire, England, 21 M. N.w. Of Newport, On The G.w. And L.m.s. Lines. Pop. (1931) 31,695. The Town Lies Near The Head Of The Ebbw Valley, Nearly 1,00o F T. Above Sea-level. Its Position On The Northern Outcrop Of The South Wales Coalfield Made It, First ...

Ebenaceae
Ebenaceae, A Family Of Dicotyledonous Trees And Shrubs Including The Ebony (q.v.) And Other Valuable Timber-trees. It Has Seven Genera, With About 32o Species, Are Chiefly Tropical Or Sub Tropical, And Especially Abundant In Malaya. The Fruit Is Usually A Berry. The Family Is Represented In The United States By ...

Eberbach
Eberbach, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Baden, Romantically Situated On The Neckar, At The Foot Of The Katzen Buckel, 19 M. E. Of Heidelberg By The Railway To Wiirzburg. Pop. (1925) 6,973. It Manufactures Barrel-hoops, Chemicals And Cigars, And Carries On By Water An Active Trade In ...

Eberbach_2
Eberbach, A Famous Cistercian Monastery Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Hesse-nassau, Situated Near Hattenheim In The Rheingau, 1 O M. N.w. From Wiesbaden. Founded In 1116 By Archbishop Adalbert Of Mainz, As A House Of Augustinian Canons Regular, It Was Bestowed By Him In 1131 Upon The Bene ...

Eberhard
Eberhard (?-939), Duke Of The Franks, Brother Of Con Rad, Duke Of Franconia And German King (911-918) . In 915 Eber Hard Supported His Brother Against The Rebel, Henry The Fowler Of Saxony, But Was Defeated, And When Conrad Died (918), Eber Hard, At His Brother's Wish, Carried To Henry ...

Eberhard_2
Eberhard, Surnamed Im Bart (barbatus), Count And Afterwards Duke Of Wurttemberg (1445-1496), Was Born On Dec. Ii, 1445, The Second Son Of Louis I., Count Of Wurttemberg-urach (d. 1450) And Succeeded His Elder Brother Louis Ii. In 1457. In 1468 He Made A Pilgrimage To Jerusalem. He Visited Italy, Became ...

Eberswalde
Eberswalde, A Town Of Germany, In The Province Of Bran Denburg, 28m. N.e. Of Berlin By Rail; On The Finow Canal. Pop. 31,310. It Received Its Municipal Charter In 1257, But Was Sacked During The Thirty Years' War. In 1747 Thuringian Cutlers Came To The Town, But The Cutlery Industry ...

Ebingen
Ebingen, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Wurttem Berg, On The Schmiecha, A Left-hand Tributary Of The Danube, 37 M. W. Of Ulm By Rail. It Manufactures Velvet And Cotton Velvet ("manchester") Goods, Stockings, Stays, Hats, Needles, Tools, Etc. There Are Also Tanneries. Pop. 14,218. ...

Ebionites
Ebionites (heb. A?i';tt "poor Men"), A Name Given To The Ultra-jewish Party In The Early Christian Church. It Is First Met With In Irenaeus (adv. Haer. I. 26. 2), Who Sheds No Light On The Origin Of The Ebionites, But Says That While They Admit The World To Have Been ...

Ebonite
Ebonite, A Substance Manufactured By Over-vulcanizing Rubber. Pure Rubber Is Mixed With About 4o Of Sulphur By Rolling, And The Resulting Mass Heated For From Six To Ten Hours At A Temperature Of 15o. The Valuable Material Thus Obtained Is A Non-conductor Of Electricity And Resists Many Chemical Re Agents. ...

Ebony
Ebony, The Wood Of Trees Of The Genus Diospyros (family Ebenaceae), Widely Distributed In The Tropical Parts Of The World. The Best Kinds Are Very Heavy, Deep Black, And Consist Of Heart Wood Only. On Account Of Its Colour, Durability, Hardness And Susceptibility Of Polish, Ebony Is Much Used For ...

Ebro
Ebro (anc. Iberus Or Hiberus), The Only One Of The Five Great Rivers Of The Iberian Peninsula Which Flows Into The Medi Terranean. The Ebro, Approximately 465 M. In Length, Rises At Fuen Tibre, A Hamlet Among The Cantabrian Mountains, In The Province Of Santander; At Reinosa, 4 M. E., ...

Ebroin
Ebroin (d. 681), Frankish "mayor Of The Palace," Was A Neustrian, And Wished To Impose The Authority Of Neustria Over Burgundy And Austrasia. In 656, At The Moment Of His Accession To Power, Sigebert Iii., The King Of Austrasia, Had Just Died, And The Austrasian Mayor Of The Palace, Grimoald, ...

Eburacum Or Eboracum
Eburacum Or Eboracum (probably A Later Variant), Roman Name Of York (q.v.) In England. Established About As Fortress Of The Ninth Legion And Garrisoned (after The Annihilation Of That Legion About A.d. 118) By The Sixth Legion, It Developed Outside Its Walls A Town Of Civil Life, Which Later Obtained ...

Ecarte
Ecarte (fr. For "separated," "discarded"), A Game At Cards, Of Modern Origin, Probably First Played In The Paris Salons In The First Quarter Of The 19th Century. It Is A Development Of A Very Old Card Game Called La Triomphe Or French-ruff. Ecarte Is Generally Played By Two Persons, But ...

Ecbatana
Ecbatana (old Persian Hangmatdna), Situated At The Foot Of Mount Orontes (alwand), Was The Capital Of Media And The Summer Residence Of The Achaemenian Kings, Being Afterwards Also The Parthian Capital. According To The Greeks (e.g., Herod Otus, I., 96 Ff.), It Was Founded By Deioces The Mede, But It ...

Eccelino Da Romano
Eccelino Da Romano , Ghibelline Leader, And Supporter Of The Emperor Frederick Ii., Was Born On April 25, 1194, Of A German Family Settled In Italy In The First Half Of The 11th Century. They Were Lords Of Romano, Near Padua. In 1226, At The Head Of A Band Of ...

Eccentric
Eccentric, From Two Greek Words, Meaning Literally "out From The Centre," And Thus Used To Connote Generally Any Deviation From The Normal. In Ancient Astronomy The Word Denotes A Circle Round Which A Body Revolves, But Whose Centre Is Displaced From The Visible Centre Of Motion. In Early Times The ...

Eccles
Eccles, Municipal Borough, Eccles Parliamentary Division, Lancashire, England, 4 M. W. Of Manchester, Of Which It Forms Practically A Suburb. Pop. (1931) 44,415. It Is Served By The L.m.s. Railway. The Manchester Ship Canal Passes Through. Be Fore The Reformation The Monks Of Whalley Abbey Had A Grange Here At ...

Ecclesfield
Ecclesfield, Township, Wortley Rural District, Penistone Parliamentary Division, West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 5 M. N. Of Sheffield On The L.m.s. And L.n.e. Railways. Pop. (1921), 22,944. The Church Of St. Mary Is Perpendicular, With A Cen Tral Tower. It Contains Excellent Woodwork, And Formerly Bore The Familiar Title Of ...

Eccleshall
Eccleshall, Market Town, Stone Parliamentary Division, Staffordshire, England; 7 M. N. W. From Stafford, And 4 M. W. Of Norton Bridge Station On The L.m.s. Main Line. Pop. (1921) 3,63o. The Church Of The Holy Trinity Is Principally Early English And Has Fine Stained Glass. Several Bishops Of Lichfield Are ...

Ecclesia
Ecclesia, The General Assembly Of Freemen In Athens (ekancrla). In The Primitive State The King Was Absolute, Though His Great Nobles In Council (see Boule) Were Able To Influence Him Considerably. In The Earliest Times The Free People, I.e., The Fighting Force Of The State, Were Called Together To Ratify ...

Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes, One Of The Wisdom Books Of The Old Testament (see Wisdom Literature). The Book, As It Stands, Is A Rnllprtinn Of Rdicennrcpc Nhcervatinng And Anhnricmc Thp Precise Meaning Of The Hebrew Title Is Not Certain. The Greek Ecclesiastes Means One Who Takes Part In The Deliberations Of An Assembly ...

Ecclesiastical Commissioners
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, In England, A Body Corporate, Whose Full Title Is "ecclesiastical And Church Estates Commissioners For England," Invested With Very Important Powers, Under The Operation Of Which Extensive Changes Have Been Made In The Distribution Of The Revenues Of The Established Church. Their Appointment Was One Of The Results ...