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Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Adolphus Charles Cambridge
Cambridge, Adolphus Charles, Marquess Of (1868-1927), Elder Brother Of Queen Mary, Was Born At Kensing Ton Palace, London, On Aug. 13, 1868, The Son Of The Duke Of Teck And His Wife Princess Mary Of Cambridge, And Died On Oct. 24, 1927. He Was Educated At Wellington College, And Entered ...

Adolphus Frederick
Adolphus Frederick, Duke Of Cambridge (1774-185o), Was Born In London On Feb. Having Studied At The University Of Gottingen, Adolphus Frederick Served In The Hanoverian And British Armies, And, In Nov. 1801, Was Created Earl Of Tipperary And Duke Of Cambridge, Becoming A Member Of The Privy Council In The ...

Adriano Castellesi
Castellesi, Adriano (146o?-1521), Italian Cardinal And Writer, Known Also As Corneto From His Birthplace, Was Sent By Innocent Viii. To Reconcile James Iii. Of Scotland With His Subjects. While In England He Was Appointed By Henry Vii., To The See Of Hereford, And In To The Diocese Of Bath And ...

Alessandro Cagliostro
Cagliostro, Alessandro, Count Italian Alchemist, And Impostor, Was Born At Palermo. Giuseppe Balsamo (for Such Was The "count's" Real Name) Fled From Sicily To Escape Punishment For A Series Of Ingenious Crimes, And Visited In Succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes (where He Took Lessons In Alchemy And The Cognate ...

Alexander Campbell
Campbell, Alexander American Re Ligious Leader, Was Born Near Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, On Sept. 12, 1788, And Was The Son Of Thomas Campbell (1763 1854), A Schoolmaster And Clergyman Of The Presbyterian "seced Ers." Alexander In 1809 After A Year At Glasgow University Joined His Father In Washington (pa.) ...

Alexander Carlyle
Carlyle, Alexander Scottish Divine, Was Born On Jan. 26, 1722, At Commertrees Manse, Dumfries Shire, And Passed His Youth And Early Manhood At Prestonpans, Where He Witnessed The Battle Of 1745. He Was Educated At Edinburgh (m.a. 1743), Glasgow, And Leyden. From 1748 Until His Death, On Aug. 28, 1805, ...

Alexandre Cabanel
Cabanel, Alexandre (1823-188g), French Painter, Was Born At Montpellier On Sept. 28 1823, And Died In Paris On Jan. 23 188g. He Studied Under Picot, And Gained The Prix De Rome In 1845. As Director Of The Ecole Des Beaux-arts Under Napoleon Iii. He Exercised Some Influence. His Subject Pictures ...

Alexis Carrel
Carrel, Alexis ), Surgeon And Biologist, Was Born At Ste. Foy-les-lyon, France, June 28, 1873. He Graduated At The University Of Lyons In 1890, Received His Medical Degree In 1900, And For Two Years Was Prosecteur A La Faculte De Medecine. He Began There His Experimental Researches, And Con Tinued ...

Alfred Capus
Capus, Alfred (1858-1922), French Author, Was Born At Aix, In Provence. He Joined The Staff Of The Figaro In 1894. Among His Plays Are Brignol Et Sa Fille (vaudeville, Nov. 23, 1894) ; Innocent (1896), Written With Alphonse Allais; Petites Folles (1897); Rosine (1897) ; Manage Bourgeois (1898) ; Les ...

Algebra Of Differences And
Algebra Of Differences And Sums 2. Let P, Q, R, S, T • • • Be Consecutive Terms Of A Series. Then By Successive Subtractions We Get The First Differences Q— P, R—q • • • , The Second Differences R— S— 2r- -1- • • • , And So ...

Alice Cary
Cary, Alice (182o-1871), And Phoebe (1824-1871), American Poets, Were Born At Mount Healthy, Near Cincinnati (ohio), Respectively On April 26, 182o, And Sept. 4, 1824. Their Education Was Largely Self-acquired, And Their Work In Literature Was Always Done In Unbroken Companionship. Their Poems Were First Collected In A Volume Entitled ...

Alonso De Castillo Solorzano
Castillo Solorzano, Alonso De (1584?-1647), Spanish Novelist And Playwright, Issued His First Work, Donaires Del Parnaso, Two Volumes Of Humorous Poems, In 1624-25, But His Tardes Entretenidas (1625) And Jornadas Alegres (16 26) Proved That He Was A Novelist By Vocation. He Published In Quick Succes Sion Three Clever Picaresque ...

Alonzo Cano
Cano, Alonzo (1601-1667), Spanish Painter, Architect And Sculptor, Was Born At Granada. He Learned Architecture From His Father, Miguel Cano, Painting From Pacheco And Sculpture From Juan Martinez Montanes. As A Sculptor His Most Famous Works Are The Madonna And Child In The Church Of Nebrissa, And The Colossal Figures ...

Alvise Cadamosto Or Ca
Cadamosto Or Ca Da Mosto, Alvise 2477), A Venetian Explorer, Navigator And Writer, Celebrated For His Voyages In The Portuguese Service To West Africa. In 1454 He Sailed From Venice For Flanders And Being Detained By Contrary Winds Off Cape St. Vincent, Was Enlisted By Prince Henry The Navigator Among ...

Ambrogio Calepino
Calepino, Ambrogio Italian Lexicog Rapher, Born At Bergamo On June 6, 1435, Was Descended Of An Old Family Of Calepio, Whence He Took His Name. He Became An Augustinian Monk And Compiled A Polyglot Dictionary, First Printed At Reggio In 1502. This Gigantic Work Was Afterwards Augmented By Passerat And ...

Anchor
Anchor.) Well-known Types Of Cable-holders, Like Napier'r And Fiarfield's, Differ Chiefly In Mechanical Details. The Principle Of Each Type Is That There Is A Long Vertical Shaft Connected At The Bottom By Worm Gearing To The Engine. On The Forecastle, At The Top Of The Shaft, Is Pivoted The Cable-holder, ...

Andrea Del Castagno
Castagno, Andrea Del Italian Painter Of The Florentine School, Was Born In 139o, Probably At Castagno, In The District Of Mugello, And Died In Aug. 1457. He Imitated Masaccio And The Naturalists Of His Time In Boldness Of Attitude. The Charge That He Treacherously Assassinated His Colleague, Do Menico Veneziano, ...

Andrew Cant
Cant, Andrew (159o?-1663), A Leader Of The Scottish Covenanters. About 1623 The People Of Edinburgh Called Him To Be Their Minister, But He Was Rejected By James I. Ten Years Later He Was Minister Of Pitsligo In Aberdeenshire, A Charge Which He Left In 1638 For That Of Newbattle In ...

Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie, Andrew (1835-1919), American Manu Facturer, Was Born In Dunfermline, Scotland, On Nov. 25, In 1848 His Father Emigrated To America, Settling In Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He Worked As A Bobbin-boy In A Cotton Factory, And Then As A Telegraph Clerk And Operator. T. A. Scott Of The Pennsylvania Railroad ...

Annibale Caro
Caro, Annibale (1507-1566), Italian Poet, Was Born At Civita Nuova, In Ancona, In 1507. He Became Tutor In The Family Of Lodovico Gaddi, A Rich Florentine, And Then Secretary To His Brother Giovanni, By Whom He Was Presented To A Valuable Ecclesiastical Preferment At Rome. At Gaddi's Death, He Entered ...

Annie Jump Cannon
Cannon, Annie Jump (1863— ), American Astron Omer, Was Born At Dover, Del., On Dec. Ii, 1863. She Gradu Ated At Wellesley College In 1884, And Did Special Work In Astron Omy At Radcliffe College. She Was An Assistant At The Harvard College Observatory, 1896-1911, And After 1911 The Curator ...

Annie Louise Cary
Cary, Annie Louise (1842-1921), American Singer, Was Born In Wayne (me.) , On Oct. 22, 184 2. She Studied In Milan, And Made Her Debut As An Operatic Contralto In Copen Hagen In 1868. She Had A Successful European Career For Several Years, Singing In Stockholm, Paris And London, And ...

Antoine Augustin Calmet
Calmet, Antoine Augustin French Benedictine, Was Born At Mesnil-la-horgne, On Feb. 26, 1672. He Joined The Benedictines In 1688, And In 1698 Was Appointed To Teach Theology And Philosophy At The Abbey Of Moyen-moutier. He Was Successively Prior At Lay, Abbot At Nancy And Of Senones In Lorraine. He Died ...

Antonio Canale Or Canaletto
Canale Or Canaletto, Antonio Venetian Painter, Born On Oct. 18, 1697, Was Educated Under His Father, Bernard, A Scene-painter Of Venice, And For Some Time Followed His Father's Profession. In 171g He Went To Rome, To Study Architecture. On His Return Home He Devoted His Powers To Painting, Finding Subjects ...

Antonio Canova
Canova, Antonio Marquis Of Ischia, Italian Sculptor, Was Born At Possagno, A Little Village Near Treviso, On Nov. 1, 1757, Of A Family Of Stonemasons. He Worked In His Grandfather's Shop Until He Was When One Of The Falieri Family In Venice Noted His Talent And Sent Him To Study ...

Antonio Canovas Del Castillo
Canovas Del Castillo, Antonio Spanish Statesman And Author, Was Born At Malaga On Feb. 8, 1828. He Studied Law At The University Of Madrid, Earning His Living Meanwhile By Literature And Journalism. He Entered The Tortes In 1854, And Held Various Offices In Liberal Cabinets Be Tween 186o And 1868. ...

Antonio De Capmany Y
Capmany Y Montpalau, Antonio De (1742 1813), Spanish Polygraph, Was Born At Barcelona On Nov. 24, 174 2. He Retired From The Army In 177o, And Was Subsequently Elected Secretary Of The Royal Academy Of History At Madrid. His Principal Works Are : Memorias Hist6ricas Sobre La Marina, Commercao, Y ...

Antonio Feliciano De Castilho
Castilho, Antonio Feliciano De Portuguese Man Of Letters, Was Born At Lisbon. He Lost His Sight At The Age Of Six, But The Devotion Of His Brother Augusto, Aided By A Retentive Memory, Enabled Him To Go Through His School And University Course With Success; And He Acquired An Almost ...

Antonio Fernandez Carvajal
Carvajal, Antonio Fernandez (c. 159o 16j9), A Portuguese Marano (q.v.) Or Crypto-jew, Who Came To England In The Reign Of Charles I. He Was The First "endenizened" Jew In England (1655), And By His Extensive Trade With The West Indies Rendered Considerable Services To The Commonwealth. Besides His Commercial Value ...

Antonio Oscar De Fragosa
Carmona, Antonio Oscar De Fragosa (1869– ), Portuguese General And Statesman, Was Made Prime Minister And Minister Of War In June 1926 By A Military Pronun Ciamento. He Was Virtually Dictator Of Portugal. Whatever May Be Said Of The Irregularity Of His Accession To Power, He Undoubt Edly Commanded General ...

Architecture
Architecture.) Decoration.—the Glass Mosaics Which Decorated The Upper Walls And Vaults Of The Typical Byzantine Ecclesiastical Interior Tended More And More To Become A Flat Surface Of Colour, Sym Metrically Adorned. This Tendency May Be Observed, In The 5th Century, Eliminating What Remains Of The Classical Mosaic Tech Nique; In ...

Armand Gaston Camus
Camus, Armand Gaston (174o-18o4), French Revo Lutionist, Was Born In Paris. In 1789 He Was Elected By The Third Estate Of Paris To The States General, And Attracted Attention By His Speeches Against Social Inequalities. Camus Was A Jansenist, And A Member Of The Ecclesiastical Committee Which Presented The Civil ...

Armus Jacob Carstens
Carstens, Armus Jacob German Por Trait And Historical Painter, Was Born In Schleswig, And In 1776 Went To Copenhagen To Study. In 1783 He Went To Italy, Where He Was Much Impressed By The Work Of Giulio Romano. He Settled In Lubeck, But Visited Rome Again In 1792. His Fine ...

Arsenio Martinez De Campos
Campos, Arsenio Martinez De Spanish Marshal, Senator And Knight Of The Golden Fleece, Was Born At Segovia. He Took Part In The Morocco Campaign Of 1859 6o, And In The Expedition To Mexico Under Prim. In 1869 He Was Sent To Cuba, Where He Was Promoted To The Rank Of ...

Arthur Nicolson Carnock
Carnock, Arthur Nicolson, Ist Baron (1849 1928), British Diplomatist, Was Born In London On Sept. 19, 1849, The Son Of Admiral Sir Frederick W. E. H. Nicolson, Loth Bart. . He Was Educated At Rugby And Brasenose College, Oxford, And In 1870 Entered The Foreign Office As Assistant Pri Vate ...

August Carpzov
August Carpzov (1612-1683) , Fifth Son Of The First Benedikt, Distinguished Himself As A Diplomatist. Born At Colditz On June 4, 1612, He Studied At The Universities Of Wittenberg, Leipzig And Jena, And In 1637 Was Appointed Advocate Of The Court Of Justice (ho F Gericht) At Wittenberg. Entering The ...

Augustin Pyrame De Candolle
Candolle, Augustin Pyrame De Swiss Botanist, Was Born At Geneva On Feb. 4, 1778. He Studied At Geneva And Settled In Paris In 1796. His Historia Plantarum Succulentarum (4 Vols., 1799-1803) And Astragalogia (1802) In Troduced Him To The Notice Of Cuvier And To J. B. Lamarck, Who Confided To ...

Aulus Caecina
Aulus Caecina, Son Of Aulus Caecina, Who Was Defended By Cicero (6g B.c.) Took The Side Of Pompey In The Civil Wars And Published A Violent Tirade Against Caesar, For Which He Was Banished. He Recanted In A Work Called Querelae, And Was Par Doned At The Intercession Of His ...

Aulvs Caecina Alienus
Aulvs Caecina Alienus, Roman General, Was Quaestor Of Baetica In Spain (a.d. 68). On The Death Of Nero He Supported Galba, Who Appointed Him To The Command Of A Legion In Upper Germany But Shortly Afterwards Ordered Him To Be Prosecuted For Embezzlement. Caecina Went Over To Vitellius And Was ...

Avidius Cassius
Cassius, Avidius (d. A.d. 175), Roman General, A Syrian By Birth, Lived During The Reign Of Marcus Aurelius. He Distinguished Himself During The Parthian War (a.d. 162-165), And Was Apparently Appointed Military Governor Of Asia, Though The Actual Extent Of His Jurisdiction Is Doubtful. In 172 He Was Sent To ...

Babylonian And Assyrian
Babylonian And Assyrian Babylonian, From 2000 B.c. Onwards.—the Babylonian Calendar Imposed By The Kings Of The First Dynasty Of Babylon, On All The Cities Immediately Under Their Rule, Was Adopted By The Assyrians At The End Of The Second Millennium B.c., Was Used By The Jews On Their Return From ...

Baldassare Castiglione
Castiglione, Baldassare Italian Diplomatist And Author Of Il Cortegiano, Was Born At Casanatico Near Mantua, And Was Educated At Milan Under The Famous Pro Fessors Merula And Chalcondyles. In 1496 He Entered The Service Of Lodovico Sforza, Duke Of Milan, Returning To Mantua In 1500 When Lodovico Was Carried Prisoner ...

Barge Canals
Barge Canals Choice Of Line.—in Laying Out A Line Of Canal The Engineer Is More Restricted Than In Forming The Route Of A Road Or A Railway. Gradients Being Inadmissible, The Canal Must Either Be Made On One Uniform Level Or Must Be Adapted To The General Rise Or Fall ...

Bartolome Miranda Carranza
Carranza, Bartolome Miranda) (1503 15 76) , Spanish Theologian, Was Born At Miranda D'arga, Navarre. He Studied At Alcala, Entered (1520) The Dominican Order, And Then Studied (1521-25) At Salamanca And At Valladolid, Where He Was Teacher Of Theology. No Spaniard Save Melchior Cano Rivalled Him In Learning. In 1530 ...

Bartolommeo Carducci
Carducci, Bartolommeo Italian Painter, Better Known As Carducho, The Spanish Corruption Of His Italian Patronymic, Was Born In Florence, Where He Studied Archi Tecture And Sculpture Under Ammanati, And Painting Under Zuc Caero. He Accompanied The Latter To Madrid, Where He Painted The Ceiling Of The Escorial Library, Assisting Also ...

Battle Of Cambrai
Cambrai, Battle Of. In The History Of The World War Of 1914-18 This Battle, Fought In Nov.–dec. 1917, Stands Out As A Landmark In The History Of Warfare. On Nov. 20, 1917, The British 3rd Army Launched An Attack, Based On A New Method, With An Initial Success So Striking ...

Battle Of Caporetto
Caporetto, Battle Of. This Is The Title Given To The Disastrous, But Not Irretrievable Defeat Of The Italian Force In Venezia. Beginning On Oct. 24, 1917, The Austro-german Drive Was Finally Thwarted On The General Line Of The Piave In December. The Italian Offensive Of Aug.-sept. 1917 (see World War) ...

Battle Of Carrhae
Carrhae, Battle Of, 53 B.c. Not Since Cannae (q.v.) Had The Romans Suffered A Defeat Which Made Such A Deep Impres Sion Upon Them As This, At The Hands—or, More Truly, The Arrows —of The Parthians. And F Our Centuries Were To Pass Before They Sustained Such Another, At Adrianople ...

Battles Of The Carpathians
Carpathians, Battles Of The. Under This Heading Is Recorded The Fighting Of The First Four Months Of 1915 In The Wooded Carpathians, From The Dukla Pass, South Of Jaslo, To The Rumanian Border. The Average Height Of The Crest Of The Main Ridge In This Section Of The Range Is ...

Beatrice Stella Patrick Campbell
Campbell, Beatrice Stella Patrick Campbell) (1865— ), English Actress, Was Born In London, Her Maiden Name Being Tanner, And In 1884 Married Captain Patrick Campbell. In 1893 She Created The Chief Part In Pinero's Second Mrs. Tanqueray At The St. James's, Her Remarkable Im Personation At Once Putting Her In ...

Benedetto Cairoli
Cairoli, Benedetto (1825-1889), Italian Statesman, Was Born In Pavia On Jan. 28, 1825. From 1848 Until The Com Pletion Of Italian Unity In 1870, His Whole Activity Was Devoted To The Risorgimento, As Garibaldian Officer, Political Refugee, Anti Austrian Conspirator And Deputy To Parliament. In 1870 He Con Ducted The ...

Benedikt Carpzov
Benedikt Carpzov Was Born In Brandenburg On Oct. 22, 1565, And After Studying At Frankfurt And Wittenberg, And Visiting Other German Universities, Was Made Doctor Of Laws At Witten Berg In 1590. He Was Admitted To The Faculty Of Law In 1592, Appointed Professor Of Institutions In 1599, And Promoted ...

Benedikt Carpzov_2
Benedikt Carpzov ), Second Of The Name, Was The Second Son Of The Preceding, And Like Him Was A Great Lawyer. He Was Born At Wittenberg On May 27, 1595, Was At First A Professor At Leipzig, Obtained An Honourable Post At Dresden In 1639, Be Came Ordinary Of The ...

Bernardo Castello
Castello, Bernardo (1557-1629), Genoese Portrait And Historical Painter, Born At Albaro Near Genoa, Was The Inti Mate Friend Of Tasso, And Designed The Figures Of The Gerusalemme Liberata, Published In 1592; Some Of These Subjects Were Engraved By Agostino Caracci. ...

Bianca Cappello
Cappello, Bianca (1548-1587), Grand Duchess Of Tuscany, Was The Daughter Of Bartolommeo Cappello, A Member Of A Rich And Ancient Venetian House, And Celebrated For Her Great Beauty. After A Runaway Marriage With Pietro Bonaventuri, A Poor Florentine Clerk, She Became The Mistress Of Francesco, Son And Heir Of The ...

Billiards
Billiards. In The 16th And 17th Centuries The "cannon" In England Was Distinctively A Large Piece, Smaller Natures Of Ordnance Being Called By Various Special Names, Such As Culverin, Saker, Falcon, Demi Cannon, Etc. We Hear Of Cromwell Taking With Him To Ireland (1649) "two Cannon Of Eight Inches, Two ...

Bitterling Bel
Bel, Bitterling, Bleak, Bream, Chub, Dace, Goldfish, Gud Geon, Mahseer, Minnow, Roach, Rudd, Tench. The Carp (cyprinus Carpio) Is Characterized By Large Scales, A Long Dorsal Fin, And A Mouth With Four Barbels. It Is A Native Of Eastern Asia, But Has Been Introduced Into Europe And North America. It ...

Byzantine And Romanesque Architec
Byzantine And Romanesque Architec Ture. Byzantine Architecture Is That Which Was Developed Under The Eastern Roman Empire From The Time Of Constantine (323– 337) Down To Its Fall In 1453. Offshoots Of This Style In Russia (see Russian Architecture) And The Balkans, And Along The East Coast Of Italy Are ...

Byzantine Architecture
Byzantine Architecture Origin And Development.—in The Too Years Preceding Con Stantine, Eastern Influence On Roman Culture Increased Continually. In Architecture, The Syrian Provinces Developed A Vivid Style Of Their Own, Which By The Time Of Hadrian (117-138) Already Showed Marked Changes From Classic Practice. These Resulted From Three Things : ...

Byzantine Art
Byzantine Art Takes Its Name From Byzantium, The Greek City On The Bosporus Of Which Constantine The Great Made A Capital In A.d. 324. For The Next 'jo() Oo Years, Constanti Nople Was The Centre Of The Greek Civilization That Produced By Zantine Art. Signs Of A Forthcoming Revolution In ...

Byzantine Music
Byzantine Music. The Name Byzantine Is Usually Given To The Music Of The Mediaeval Greek Orthodox Church. Our Knowledge Of It Rests Partly On The Writings Of Theorists, Partly On The Hymns Themselves Preserved In Liturgical Manu Scripts. The Earlier Musical Signs Or Neumes Have Survived From The Loth Century ...

Byzantium
Byzantium, A Greek City On The Shores Of The Bosporus, Occupying The Most Easterly Of The Seven Hills Of Modern Constan Tinople. It Was Founded By Megarians And Argives Under Byzas About 657 B.c., But Destroyed In The Reign Of Darius Hystaspes By The Satrap Otanes; It Was Recolonized By ...

Cab
Cab. A Colloquial Abbreviation Of The French Cabriolet, Originally A Passenger-vehicle Drawn By Two Or Four Horses. It Was Introduced Into London From Paris In 182o. London Not Only Turned "cabriolet" Into "cab" (a Word Which Became Officially Enshrined In An Act Of Parliament, The London Cab Act Of 1896) ...

Cabal
Cabal, A Private Organization Or Party Engaged In Secret Intrigues, And Applied Also To The Intrigues Themselves (through The Fr. Cabale, From The Cabbala Or Kabbalah, The Theosophical Inter Pretation Of The Hebrew Scriptures). In England The Word Had Been Jealously Used Throughout The I 7th Century, With The Alter ...

Cabaletta
Cabaletta, A Musical Term Which Is Really A Modified Form Of Cavatinetta (it.), And Therefore Means Strictly A Small Cavatina (q.v.), But In Practice It Has Come To Be Applied To The Quick Concluding Section Or Final Phrases Of A Vocal Number. ...

Cabanatuan
Cabanatuan, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And Eight Barrios Or Districts) And Capital Of The Province Of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, Philippine Islands; And One Of The Chief Commercial Centres Of The Province. Pop. (1918) 15,286, Of Whom 14 Were Whites. It Is Well Situated On The Manila-dagupan Railway And On ...

Cabatuan
Cabatuan, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 56 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Iloilo, Panay, Philip Pine Islands, On A Branch Of The Suague River, 15 M. N. Of Iloilo, The Capital, And A Few Miles From The Railway. Pop. (1918) 14,816, Of Whom None Were White. The ...

Cabbage
Cabbage, A Table Vegetable And Fodder Plant Whose Various Forms Are Supposed To Have Been Developed By Long Cultivation From The Wild Or Sea Cabbage (brassica Oleracea), A Plant Found Near The Sea Coast Of Various Parts Of England And Continental Europe. The Cultivated Varieties, However, Have Departed Widely From ...

Cabeiri
Cabeiri, An Important Group Of Deities, Perhaps Of Phrygian Origin, Worshipped Over A Large Part Of Asia Minor, On The Islands Near By, Particularly Lemnos And Samothrace, And In Macedonia And Northern And Cen Tral Greece, Especially Boeotia. (itaj3ecpoc, In Boeotian 1tm3tpoc, Is Commonly Identified With Phoen. Qabirim, "mighty Ones," ...

Caber Tossing
Caber Tossing, A Scottish Athletic Game Which Con Sists In Throwing A Section Of A Trunk Of A Tree, Called The "caber" (gaelic Caber, A Pole Or Beam), In Such A Manner That It Shall Turn Over In The Air And Fall On The Ground With Its Small End Point ...

Cabin
Cabin, Originally A Small, Roughly Built Hut Or Shelter; It Is Particularly Applied To The Thatched Mud Cottages Of The Negroes Of The Southern States Of The United States Of America, Or Of The Poverty-stricken Peasantry Of Ireland Or The Crofter Districts Of Scotland. In A Special Sense It Is ...

Cabinet Maker
Cabinet-maker, One Skilled In Furniture-making And Interior Wood-work Finish. (see Furniture Manufacture.) ...

Cabinet Noir
Cabinet Noir, The Name Given In France To The Office Where The Letters Of Suspected Persons Were Opened And Read By Public Officials Bef Ore Being Forwarded To Their Destination. This Practice Had Been In Vogue Since The Establishment Of Posts, But It Was Not Until The Reign Of Louis ...

Cabinet
Cabinet, A Word With Various Applications Which May Be Traced To Two Principal Meanings, (i) A Small Private Chamber, And (2) An Article Of Furniture Containing Compartments Formed Of Drawers, Shelves, Etc. The Word Is A Diminutive Of "cabin" And Therefore Properly Means A Small Hut Or Shelter. From The ...

Cable Moulding
Cable Moulding (sometimes Called Rope Moulding), In Architecture, A Convex Moulding, Spirally Carved, So That It Resembles A Rope. Its Most Common Use Is As One Of The Mould Ings Decorating Recessed Doorways Of The Romanesque And Gothic Periods. The Word "cabling" Designates A Convex Moulding Sunk In The Flutes ...

Cable Transfers
Cable Transfers, The Immediate Transfer Of Money From One Country To Another By The Use Of Cablegram. A Person In New York For Instance, Wishing To Put In The Hands Of A Per Son In London A Certain Sum Of Money At Once, Can Do So By Procuring A Cable ...

Cable
Cable, A Large Rope Or Chain, Used Generally With Ships, But Often Employed For Other Purposes ; The Term "cable" Is Also Used For Minor Varieties Of Similar Engineering Or Other Attachments, And In The Case Of "electric Cables" For The Grouped And Sheathed Wires By Which Telegraphic And Telephonic ...

Cabotage
Cabotage, The French Term For Coasting-trade, A Coast Pilotage. It Is Probably Derived From Cabot, A Small Boat, With Which The Name Cabot May Be Connected; The Conjecture That The Word Comes From Cabo, The Spanish For Cape, And Means "sailing From Cape To Cape," Has Little Foundation. ...

Cabra
Cabra, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Cor Dova, 28m. S.e. Of Cordova, On The Jaen-malaga Railway. It Is Built On The River Cabra In The Fertile Valley Between The Sierra De Cabra And The Sierra De Montilla. Pop. (1930) 14,308. Cabra Has A Ruined Moorish Castle ...

Cabrillo National Monument
Cabrillo National Monument, A Tract Of 1 Ac. In The Southern Part Of California, U.s.a., Set Apart As A Govern Ment Reservation In 1913. It Was At Or Near This Point That Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo First Saw The California Mainland On Sept. 28, 1542. The Reservation Is Administered By The ...

Cabriolet
Cabriolet, Originally, A Name Given By The English To A Two-wheel, Horse-drawn Vehicle With A Hood, For Gentleman's Driv Ing. In America, A Name Given To A Horse-drawn Vehicle With A Coachman's Seat Over A Panel Framework (in Distinction From A Victoria Which Is Similar, But Of Iron Skeleton Construction). ...

Caceres
Caceres, A Province Of Western Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Taken From Estremadura. It Is Bounded On The North By Salamanca And Avila, On The East By Toledo, On The South By Badajoz, And On The West By Portugal. Pop. 449,756; Area, 7,667 Sq. Miles. Caceres Is The Largest ...

Caceres_2
Caceres, Capital Of The Spanish Province Described Above, About 14m. S. Of The River Tagus, On A Branch Railway From Arroyo De Malpartida, On The North Madrid-lisbon Line, To Merida On The South Line. Pop. (192o) 23,563. Caceres, Built On A Conspicuous Eminence On A Low East-west Ridge, Consists Of ...

Cachar Or Kachar
Cachar Or Kachar, A District Of British India, In The Province Of Assam. It Occupies The Upper Basin Of The Surma Or Barak River, And Is Bounded On Three Sides By Lofty Hills. Its Area Is 3,654 Sq. Miles. Pop. (1921) 527,228. It Is Divided Nat Urally Between The Plain ...

Cache
Cache, A Store Or Hiding Place, Generally A Hole Dug In The Ground For Concealing Provisions, Etc. ; Also The Goods So Hidden. A Series Of Caches Is Sometimes Laid On Long Expeditions, As In Arctic Exploration, To Provide Stores For The Return Journey. ...

Cachoeira
Cachoeira, An Inland Commercial Centre Of The State Of Bahia, Brazil. It Lies On The Paraguassu River, About 4o M. From Its Mouth At The Head Of The Bahia (or Bay) Todos Os Santos, From Which The Town And State Of Bahia Take Their Name. Cachoeira Has A Population (192o) ...

Cacique
Cacique, The Name Adopted By The Spaniards At The Time Of The Discovery Of America For A Native Chief Or Ruler. It Is Sometimes Also Applied To A Bird, Cassicus, Of The Icterine Family (see Icterus). ...

Cacodyl
Cacodyl, A Colourless Liquid Which Is Spontaneously Inflam Mable In Air, Has An Intolerable Smell And Belongs To The Group Of Organo-arsenical Compounds (see Arsenic: Organic Derivatives). ...

Cactus
Cactus. This Word, Applied By The Ancient Greeks To Some Prickly Plant, Was Adopted By Linnaeus As The Name Of A Group Of Curious Succulent Or Fleshy-stemmed Plants, Most Of Them Prickly And Leafless, Some Of Which Produce Beautiful Flowers, And Are Now Popular In Gardens. As Applied By Linnaeus, ...

Cactus_2
Cactus (fig. I), The Genus Of Melon-thistle Or Turk's Cap Cactuses, Contains About I8 Species, Which Are Found In The West Indies, Mexico, Venezuela And Colombia. The Typical Species, Cactus Melocactus, Of Jamaica, Forms A Succulent Mass Of Ovoid Form, From I To Aft. High, The Surface Divided Into Numerous ...

Cadastre
Cadastre, A Register Of The Real Property Of A Country, With Details Of The Area, The Owners, And The Value. A "cadastral Survey" Is Properly, Therefore, One Which Gives Such Information As The Domesday Book, But The Term Is Sometimes Used Loosely Of The Ordnance Survey Of The British Isles, ...

Caddis Fly
Caddis-fly And Caddis-worm, The Name Given To Insects With A Superficial Resemblance To Moths And Referred To The Order Trichoptera (q.v.) In Allusion To The Hairy Covering Of The Body And Wings. Caddis-flies Occur In The Neighbourhood Of Fresh Water In Which They Lay Their Eggs, And Their Larvae (caddis ...

Caddo
Caddo. A Tribe, A Confederacy And A Stock Of American In Dians West Of The Mississippi River Are Known By This Name. The Caddoan Stock Occupied Three Territories. The Largest, That Of The Caddo Or Hasinai Confederacy And Their Kinsmen, Embraced Most Of The Drainage Of Red River Plus Adjacent ...

Cadenabbia
Cadenabbia, A Village Of Lombardy, Italy, In The Province Of Como, 15m. N.n.e. By Steamer From Como, On The West Shore Of The Lake Of Como, And A Favourite Spring And Autumn Resort. The Villa Carlotta, Formerly The Property Of The Duke Of Saxe Meiningen, Now Belonging To The Italian ...

Cadence
Cadence, A Falling Or Sinking, Especially As Applied To Rhythmical Or Musical Sounds, As In The "fall" Of The Voice In Speaking, The Rhythm Or Measure Of Verses, Song Or Dance. In Music, The Word Is Used Of The Closing Chords Of A Musical Phrase, Which Succeed One Another In ...

Cader Idris
Cader Idris ("the Chair Of Idris"), One Of The Highest Mountains In North Wales, Ranking Next To Snowdon In Popular Favour. It Stands South Of Dolgelley And The Mawddach Estuary, In Merionethshire. The Main Core Is Formed By A Bare Ridge Some 8m. Long, Culminating In Pen-y-gader (2,92 7f T.) ...

Cadet
Cadet, The Head Of A Junior Branch Of A Family, A Younger Son (through The Fr. From The Late Lat. Capitettum, A Diminutive Of Caput, Head, Through The Provencal Form Capdet). Employed As A Military Term For An Accepted Candidate For A Commission In The Army Or Navy, Who Is ...

Cadi
Cadi (qadi), A Judge In A Muhammadan Court, In Which De Cisions Are Rendered On The Basis Of The Canon Law Of Islam (shari`a). It Is A General Duty, According To Canon Law, Upon A Muslim Community To Judge Legal Disputes On This Basis, And It Is An Individual Duty ...

Cadillac
Cadillac (kcid'i-lcik), A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., 95m. N. Of Grand Rapids, On Lakes Cadillac And Mitchell, Which Are Con Nected By A Picturesque Canal 2ooyd. Long; The County Seat Of Wexford County. It Is On Federal Highway 131, And Is Served By The Ann Arbor And The Pennsylvania Railways. ...

Cadiz
Cadiz, A Province Of Southern Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Taken From Seville. It Is Bounded On The North By Seville, East By Malaga, South-east By The Mediterranean Sea, South By The Strait Of Gibraltar, And West By The Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1930) 507,972; Area, 2,834 Sq.m.; Inclusive, In ...