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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Carmagnola
Carmagnola, A Town Of Italy, In The Province Of Turin, 18m. By Rail S. Of Turin. Pop. (1921) 3,740 (town), 11,914 (commune) . It Is The Junction Where The Lines For Savona And Cuneo Diverge; It Is Also Connected With Turin By A Steam Tram Way Via Carignano. It Was ...

Carmagnole
Carmagnole, A Word First Applied To A Piedmontese Peasant Costume (from Carmagnola, The Town In Italy) Well Known In The South Of France, And Brought To Paris By The Revolu Tionaries Of Marseilles In 1793. It Consisted Of A Short Skirted Coat With Rows Of Metal Buttons, A Tricoloured Waistcoat ...

Carmarthen
Carmarthen, The Capital Town Of The County Of That Name, On The Right Bank Of The Towy, Where The River Straightens Out After Meandering, And Turns Seawards (pop., 1931, 10,310). Its Site On The Historic South Wales Coast Road Also Commands The Main Towy Route Into Central Wales From The ...

Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire, South Wales County, Is Bounded North By Cardigan, East By Brecon And Glamorgan, West By Pem Broke, South By Carmarthen Bay And The Bristol Channel (area 918 Square M. ; The Largest Welsh County) . It Consists Essentially Of The Plain Of The Towy, With Its Continuation Into The ...

Carmathians
Carmathians, A Muhammadan Sect Named After Ham Dan Qarmat, Who Accepted The Teaching Of The Isma`ilites (see Islam: Sects) From Husayn Al-ahwazi, A Missionary Of Ahmad, Son Of The Persian `abdallah Ibn Maimun, Toward The Close Of The 9th Century. For The Political History Of The Carmathians, Their Conquests, And ...

Carmaux
Carmaux, A Town Of Southern France, In The Department Of Tarn, On The Left Bank Of The Cerou, I Om. N. Of Albi, Under The South-western Slopes Of The Central Plateau. Pop. (1931), 9,050. The Town Gives Its Name To A Coal-basin And Has Important Glass Works. ...

Carmel
Carmel. In Palestine, A Well-defined Mountain Ridge ("gar Den Orchard"; Arab. Jebel Mar Elyds, Elijah's Mount), Wedge Shaped, Running North-west-south-east, With A Length Of Some 15 M. And An Extreme Breadth Of About 81 M. Where It Meets The Samarian Hills, Its Thin End Projecting Into The Sea To Form ...

Carmelites
Carmelites, In England Called White Friars (from The White Mantle Over A Brown Habit), One Of The Four Mendicant Orders. The Stories Concerning The Origin Of This Order, Seriously Put Forward And Believed In The 17th And 18th Centuries, Are One Of The Curiosities Of History. It Was Asserted That ...

Carminatives
Carminatives Are Drugs Which Aid The Expulsion Of Gas From The Stomach And Intestines. They Act Chiefly By Producing A Mild Irritation And Increased Vascularity In The Stomach, Thus Stimulating The Gastro-intestinal Movements Or By Diminishing Spasm. Probably Some Effect Is Due To Suggestion And To The Pleasant Sensation They ...

Carmine
Carmine, A Rich Crimson-red Pigment Prepared From Coch Ineal (q.v.), The Dried Bodies Of The Coccus Cacti Insects Indige Nous To Mexico And Central America. The Powdered Cochineal Is Digested With A Dilute Solution Of Carbonate Of Soda Through Which Live Steam Is Passed ; After Boiling For Two Hours ...

Carmona
Carmona, A City Of South-west Spain, In The Province Of Seville, 27m. N.e. Of Seville By Rail. It Is Situated On A Ridge Overlooking The Plain Of Andalusia, From The Sierra Morena, On The North, To The Peak Of San Cristobal On The South. Pop. (193o) 22,267. The District Round ...

Carnal
Carnal, A Village Of North-western France, In The Depart Ment Of Morbihan And Arrondissement Of Lorient, 9 M. S.w. Of Auray. Pop. (1931) 661. It Has A Church In The Renaissance Style Of Brittany, But Owes Its Celebrity To The Stone Monuments In Its Vicinity. (see Stone Monuments.) The Most ...

Carnarvon
Carnarvon, Ancient Market Town, Municipal And Con Tributory Parliamentary Borough, Seaport And County Town Of Car Narvonshire, North Wales, 681m. W. Of Chester By The Coastal L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931), 8.469. It Stands Near The South-western End Of The Menai Straits, At The Mouth Of The Seiont. The Settle Ment Dates ...

Carnarvonshire
Carnarvonshire, A County Of North Wales (welsh Caer'narfon, For Caer Yn Arf On) , Bounded North By The Irish Sea, East By Denbigh, South-east By Merioneth, South By Cardigan Bay, South-west By Carnarvon Bay And West By The Menai Straits. Area, 565 Square Miles. A Small Detached Portion Of The ...

Carnatic
Carnatic, A Name Given By Europeans To A Region Of Southern India, Between The Eastern Ghats And The Coromandel Coast, In The Presidency Of Madras. Properly The Name Applies Only To The Country Of The Kanarese Extending Between The East Ern And Western Ghats, Over An Irregular Area Narrowing North ...

Carnation
Carnation Caryo Pliyllus, Family Caryophyl Laceae), A Garden Flower, A Native Of Southern Europe, But Occa Sionally Found In An Apparently Wild State In England. It Is Held In High Estimation For The Beauty And The Delightful Fragrance Of Its Blossoms. The Varieties Are Numerous, And Are Ranged Under Three ...

Carneades
Carneades (214-129 B.c.), Greek Philosopher, Founder Of The Third Or New Academy, Was Born At Cyrene. Little Is Known Of His Life. He Learned Dialectics Under Diogenes The Stoic, And Under Hegesinus, Leader Of The Academy. The Chief Objects Of His Study, However, Were The Works Of Chrysippus, Op Position ...

Carnegie Trusts
Carnegie Trusts, The Second Largest, And In Some Re Spects The Most Remarkable, Group Of Charitable Foundations In The World. Andrew Carnegie's Theory Of Wealth Is Summed Up In The Following Sentence : "this, Then, Is Held To Be The Duty Of The Man Of Wealth : To Set An ...

Carnegie
Carnegie, A Borough Of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., 6m. S.w. Of Pittsburgh, In The Beautiful Valley Of Char Tiers Creek. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania, The Pittsburgh, Chartiers And Youghiogheny And The Pittsburgh And West Vir Ginia Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 11,516; And It Was In 1930. ...

Carneia
Carneia, An Important Dorian Festival (sparta, Cos, Etc.). While Many Details Of It Are Obscure, The Following Are The Main Features, And Are Tolerably Certain. (i) It Was Held In The Month Karneios (roughly August). (2) The Name Is Connected With Karnos Or Karneios (probably = Ram), Said To Have ...

Carnelian Or Cornelian
Carnelian Or Cornelian, A Variety Of Chalcedony (q.v.), Is Most Generally Of A Blood-red Colour, Though Included Under This Name Are Specimens Of A Reddish Tint Varying In Colour From Yellow To Brown. The Colouring Matter Is Probably Iron Oxide In Various Stages Of Hydration, Though The Particles Are So ...

Carniola
Carniola, A Former Duchy And Crownland Of Austria Which Centred Round The Town Of Laibach (ljubljana), On A Feeder Of The Save And In A Fertile Basin. With The Foundation Of The Serb, Croat And Slovene State, Carniola Ceased To Exist As A Terri Torial Unit, Being Merged In Slovenia. ...

Carnival
Carnival, The Last Three Days Preceding Lent, Which In Roman Catholic Countries Are Given Up To Feasting And Merry Making. Anciently The Carnival Began On The Morrow Of Epiphany (jan. 7) And Lasted Till Shrove Tuesday. It Probably Represents The Roman Saturnalia. Rome Has Ever Been The Headquarters Of Carnival, ...

Carnivores Or Carnivora
Carnivores Or Carnivora, Members Of The Order Of Flesh-eating Mammals Which Includes The Most Powerful And Ferocious Beasts Of Prey, As The Lion, Tiger, Leopard And Jaguar, Numerous Fur-bearers, As The Seal, Fox And Sable, The Domesticated Cat And Dog And Other Well-known Animals. In General, Their Teeth, Especially The ...

Carnoustie
Carnoustie, Police Burgh And Watering-place, Forfar Shire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 4,806. It Lies On The North Sea, 1o4 M. E.n.e. Of Dundee By The L. & N.e.r. Bathing And Golf Ing Are Good. Barry Links, A Triangular Sandy Tract Occupying The South-eastern Corner Of The Shire, Is Used As A ...

Carnuntum
Carnuntum, An Important Roman Fortress (kapvovs In Ptolemy), Originally Belonging To Noricum, But After The 1st Century A.d. To Pannonia. It Was A Celtic Town, The Name, Which Is Nearly Always Found With K On Monuments, Being Derived From Kar, Karn ("rock," "cairn"). Its Extensive Ruins May Still Be Seen ...

Carnutes
Carnutes, A Celtic People Of Central Gaul, Between The Sequana (seine) And The Liger (loire). Their Territory Included The Greater Part Of The Modern Departments Of Eure-et-loir, Loiret, Loir-et-cher. The Chief Towns Were Cenabum (orleans) And Autricum (chartres). In The Time Of Caesar They Were De Pendents Of The Remi, ...

Carol Ii
Carol Ii. (1893— ), King Of Rumania, Was The Eldest Son Of King Ferdinand And Queen Marie Of Rumania, And Became Crown Prince On The Death Of His Grandfather, Carol I., In 1914• In 1921, After The Dissolution Of A Morganatic Marriage He Married The Princess Helen, Daughter Of Constantine, ...

Carol
Carol, A Hymn Of Praise, Especially Such As Is Sung At Christmas In The Open Air. Diez Suggests That The Word Is De Rived From Chorus. Others Ally It With Corolla, A Garland, Circle Or Coronet, The Earliest Sense Of The Word Being Apparently "a Ring" Or "circle," "a Ring ...

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth I
Caroline Amelia Elizabeth (i , Queen Of George Iv. Of Great Britain, Second Daughter Of Charles Wil Liam Ferdinand, Duke Of Brunswick-wolfenbuttel, Was Born On May 17, 1768. In She Was Married To The Then Prince Of Wales (see George Iv.), Who Disliked Her And Separated From Her After The ...

Caroline
Caroline Wife Of George Ii., King Of Great Britain And Ireland, Was A Daughter Of John Frederick, Margrave Of Brandenburg-ansbach (d. 1686). She Married George Augustus, Electoral Prince Of Hanover, In Sept. 1705. In Oct. 1714, When Her Father-in-law Became King George I, Caroline Came With Her Husband To London, ...

Carolingians
Carolingians, The Name Of A Family (so Called From Charlemagne, Its Most Illustrious Member) Which Gained The Throne Of France A.d. 751. It Appeared In History In 613, Its Origin Being Traced To Arnulf (arnoul), Bishop Of Metz, And Pippin, Long Called Pippin Of Landen, But More Correctly Pippin The ...

Carolus Duran
Carolus-duran, The Name Adopted By The French Painter, Charles Auguste Emile Durand Who Was Born At Lille On July 4, 1837, And Died In Paris On Feb. 17, 1917. He Studied At The Lille Academy And Then Went To Paris, And In 1861 To Italy And Spain For Further Study, ...

Carora
Carora, An Inland Town Of The State Of Lara, Venezuela, On The Carora, A Branch Of The Tocuyo River, About 45m. W. By S. Of The City Of Barquisimeto, And 1,128ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1926), 11,200. The Town Is Comparatively Well-built And Posses Ses A Fine Parish Church, A Franciscan ...

Carp
Carp, The Typical Fish Of The Family Cyprinidae Of The Order Ostariophysi, In Which The Air-bladder Is Connected With The In Ternal Ear By A Chain Of Ossicles. The Cyprinidae Are Scaly Sof T Rayed Fishes With Abdominal Pelvic Fins, With A Toothless Pro Tractile Mouth, And With F Alcif ...

Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains. These Form The Eastern Wing Of The Central Mountain Axis Of Europe, Though They Are Not So Impressive Nor So Widely Known As The Alps. They Begin Near Bratislava And Extend In A Huge Arc, Concave Towards The South West To Orsova On The Danube With A Total ...

Carpenter
Carpenter, A Worker In Wood. Carpenters Are Commonly Classified According To The Work Which They Do, E.g., Ships' Carpen Ters, Rough Carpenters (rough Carpentry, An Obsolescent Phrase, Meaning The Erection Of The Framework Of A Wooden House), Cabi Net Makers, Etc. Wood-cutting Machinists Are More Properly Classed As Mill-sawyers. In ...

Carpentras
Carpentras, A Town Of South-eastern France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Vaucluse 16 M. N.e. Of Avignon. Pop. (1931) 8,910. It Lies In A Hilly Region Bordering The Wide Valley Of The Lower Rhone. Carpentras Is Identified With Carpentoracte, A Town Of Gallia Narbonensis Mentioned By Pliny. ...

Carpentry
Carpentry, The Art And Work Of A Carpenter (from Lat. Carpentum, A Carriage), A Workman In Wood, Especially For Build Ing Purposes. Carpenters' Work Has Been Divided Into Three Principal Branches—descriptive, Constructive And Mechanical. The First Shows The Lines Or Method For Forming Every Species Of Work By The Rules ...

Carpet Bagger
Carpet-bagger, A Political Slang Term For A Person Who Stands As A Candidate For Election In A Locality In Which He Is A Stranger. It Is Particularly Used Of Such A Candidate Sent Down By The Central Party Organization. The Term Was First Used In The Western States Of America ...

Carpet Knight
Carpet-knight, One Who Has Been Knighted In Time Of Peace, On The Carpet Before The King's Throne, Not On The Battle Field As A Reward For Valour. It Is A Term Of Reproach For A Soldier Who Stays At Home And Avoids Active Service. ...

Carpet Manufacture
Carpet Manufacture. Modern Carpet Manufacture Involves The Use Of Machinery And Of Many Different Materials, Such As Woollen And Worsted Yarns For The Surface Of The Carpet, And Cotton, Linen And Jute For The Back. The Wool Which Is Most Suitable For Carpet Yarn Is Generally Fairly Long In The ...

Carpet
Carpet. For The History Of Carpet-making, See Rugs And Carpets. For Present Methods Of Manufacture, See Carpet Manufacture. ...

Carpi
Carpi, A Dacian Tribe Established Upon The Lower Danube From The 1st Century B.c. They Rose To Considerable Power During The 3rd Century A.d., And, Claiming To Be Superior To The Goths, Demanded That Their Incursions Into Roman Territory Should Like Wise Be Bought Off By Tribute. When This Was ...

Carpi_2
Carpi, A Town And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy, In The Prov Ince Of Modena, 9m. N.n.w. By Rail From The Town Of Modena. Pop. (1921) 11,272 (town), 30,675 (commune). It Is The Centre Of A Fertile Agricultural District. Carpi Contains Several Renais Sance Buildings Of Interest, The Façade Of ...

Carpzov
Carpzov (latinized Carpzovius), The Name Of A Family, Many Of Whose Members Attained Distinction In Saxony In The 17th And 18th Centuries As Jurists, Theologians And Statesmen. The Family Traced Its Origin To Simon Carpzov, Who Was Burgo Master Of Brandenburg In The Middle Of The 16th Century, And Who ...

Carquinez Strait Bridge
Carquinez Strait Bridge, In California, About 25m. N. Of San Francisco, Begun April 1923 Completed May 1927, Is One Of The Largest Cantilever Bridges In The World. The Carquinez Bridge Is Notable Also For Its Deep-water Pier Founda Tions, Built In 90f T. Of Water, 13 2 F T. Below ...

Carrara Or Carraresi
Carrara Or Carraresi, A Powerful Family Of Long Obard Origin Which Ruled Padua In The 14th Century. They Take Their Name From The Village Of Carrara Near Padua, And The First Recorded Member Of The House Is Gamberto (d. Before 97o). In The Wars Between Guelphs And Ghibellines The Carraresi ...

Carrara
Carrara, A Town Of Tuscany, Italy, In The Province Of Massa E Carrara, 39of T. Above Sea-level, 3m. By Rail N.n.e. Of Avenza, Which Is 16m. E.s.e. Of Spezia. Pop. (1931) (town), 58,511 (commune). The Cathedral (1272-1385) Is A Fine Gothic Building Dating From The Period Of Pisan Supremacy; The ...

Carriage
Carriage, A Vehicle Which Is Designed For Animal Traction And Is Provided With Accommodation For The Driver And Those Travelling. A Carriage May Have Seats For The Passengers Only, Such As When It Is Driven By One Or More Mounted Postilions. A Trotting Sulky, Used For Racing, Is An Example ...

Carrick On Shannon
Carrick-on-shannon, Market And County Town, Co. Leitrim, Ireland. Pop. (1926) 1,026. It Is Situated On The Upper Shannon Near The Confluence Of The Boyle, And Is On The Great Southern Railway 90 M. N.w. Of Dublin. It Is An Assize Town And Has Some River Trade. ...

Carrick On Suir
Carrick-on-suir, Market Town, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, On The North Bank Of The Suir, 14 M. W.n.w From Waterford On The Great Southern Railway. Population Of Urban District (1926) 4,675. The Castle Dates From 1309. The Suburb Of Carrickbeg, Connected By A 14th Century Bridge, Has Remains Of A 14th Century ...

Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus, A Seaport And Watering-place Of Co. Antrim, Ireland, On The Northern Shore Of Belfast Lough, 91 M. N.e. Of Belfast By The Northern Counties (midlands) Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (192i) 4,608. In 1 182 John De Courci Fixed A Colony In The District. The Castle Came In The ...

Carrickmacross
Carrickmacross, Market Town, Co. Monaghan, Ire Land, 68 Miles N.n.w. Of Dublin On The Great Northern Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (1926) 2,000. There Are Remains Of An Elizabethan Castle, Destroyed In 1641. It Is An Agricultural Centre And Manufactures Lace. ...

Carrier
Carrier, A Term Of General Application To Any Person Who Undertakes To Carry The Goods Of Another For Hire, Whether By Land, Air Or Water, Irrespective Of The Method Of Transit. The Principle Of Law Imposing Responsibility Upon The Carrier For The Safety Of The Goods Carried Is Derived From ...

Carriers
Carriers. Normally When An Individual Recovers From An Infective Disease He Rids Himself Of The Causal Organisms So That When He Is Convalescent Or Recovered He Ceases To Be Infective. It Has Been Found That A Certain Proportion Of Individuals, However, Do Not Rid Themselves Of The Disease-causing Germs, But ...

Carroccio
Carroccio, A War Chariot Drawn By Oxen, Used By The Mediaeval Republics Of Italy. It Was A Rectangular Platform On Which The Standard Of The City And An Altar Were Erected ; Priests Held Services On The Altar Before A Battle, And The Trumpeters Be Side Them Encouraged The Fighters ...

Carroll
Carroll, A City Of Western Iowa, U.s.a., On Federal High Ways 3o (the Lincoln) And 71, At An Altitude Of 1,270 Ft.; The County Seat Of Carroll County. It Is Served By The Chicago And North-western And The Chicago Great Western Railways. The Population In 1930 Federal Census Was 4,691. ...

Carrollton
Carrollton, A City Of Western Georgia, U.s.a., 45m. West-south-west Of Atlanta ; On The Little Tallapoosa River, Federal Highway 78s And The Central Of Georgia Railway ; The County Seat Of Carroll County. The Population Was 4,363 In 1920 (20% Ne Groes), And Was 5,052 In 1930 By The Federal ...

Carrot
Carrot. Wild Carrot, Daucus Carota, A Member Of The Family Umbelliferae, Grows Wild In Fields And On Roadsides And Sea-shores In Britain And The North Temperate Zone Generally Of The Old World. It Has Become Naturalized As A Weed In The United States, Where It Is A Pest In Many ...

Carrying Charges
Carrying Charges, In The United States, Interest Charges Made By Brokers For Money Supplied By Them To Carry The Accounts Of Customers Who Have Purchased Securities On Margin. The Rate Of Such Interest Is Generally Slightly Higher, 1 To 2%, Than The Prevailing Call Loan Rate. The Term Is Also ...

Carrying Over Or Continuation
Carrying Over Or Continuation, A Stock Ex Change Term For The Operation By Which The Settlement Of A Bar Gain Transacted For Money Or For A Given Account, May For A Con Sideration (called Either A "contango" Or A "backwardation") Be Postponed From One Settling Day To Another. Such A ...

Carsioli
Carsioli, An Ancient City Of Italy (mod. Carsoli), On The Via Valeria, 42m. E. By N. Of Rome. It Was Founded In The Country Of The Aequi Between 302 And 298 B.c., Just After The Establishment Of Alba Fucens, No Doubt As A Stronghold To Guard The Road To The ...

Carso
Carso, A Limestone Plateau, Extending South-eastwards From The East Bank Of The Isonzo To The Gulf Of Fiume, And South-west Wards From The Valley Of The Vipacco To The Gulf Of Trieste. Its Is About 3eo It. Above The Isonzo. But It Increases _ : = Ft. Above Sea-level As ...

Carson City
Carson City, The Capital Of Nevada, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Ormsby County, From Lake Tahoe, Which Lies At The Crook In The Western Boundary Of The State. It Is On Federal Highway 5o, And Is Served By The Virginia And Truckee Railway, Which Has Repair Shops There. It ...

Cart
Cart. A General Term For Various Kinds Of Vehicles, In Some Cases For Carrying People, But More Particularly For Transporting Goods, For Agricultural Or Postal Purposes, Etc., Or For Carriers. Though Constructed In Various Ways, The Simplest Type For Goods Is Two-wheeled, Topless And Springless; But As A General Term ...

Cartagena Or Carthagena
Cartagena Or Carthagena, A City Of South-east Ern Spain, In The Province Of Murcia, On The Mediterranean Sea, And Terminus Of A Branch Railway From Murcia. Pop. (1930) 102,518. Cartagena Stands At The Head Of A Splendid Natural Har Bour Whose Easy Defence Has Made It The Chief Naval Base ...

Cartagena
Cartagena, A City, Seaport, And The Capital Of The De Partment Of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, On The Caribbean Coast. Pop. (1905, Official Estimate) 14,000; (1933) The Population Of Cartagena Is Largely Composed Of Blacks And Mulat Tos, Which Form The Predominant Type On The Lowland Plains Of Northern Colombia. ...

Cartago
Cartago, The Second City Of Costa Rica, Central America, I2m. E. Of San Jose On The Main Line Of The Costa Rica Railway At An Altitude Of 4,93oft. Above Sea-level. The Population In 1927 Was 7,143. Cartago Lies On The Plateau Of San Jose At The Base Of The Irazu ...

Cartel Or Kartel
Cartel Or Kartel, A Form Of Combination Among Manufacturers, By Which The Independent Firms And Establishments In A Particular Trade Or Process Contract To Regulate Their Output And, In Certain Cases, Their Prices. During The Last Decade Before The World War, In Germany And In Other Countries Cartels Were Gaining ...

Carteret
Carteret, A Borough Of Middlesex County, New Jersey, U.s.a., 5 M. S. Of Elizabeth; Served By The Central Railroad Of New Jersey. Pop. (5920) 11,047 (46% Foreign-born White, The Majority From Austria And Hungary) ; 1930, Federal Census, It Has Important Industries, Notably The Refining Of Metals And The Manufacture ...

Cartersville
Cartersville, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., 45m. North West Of Atlanta, On The Etowah River And Federal Highway 41; The County Seat Of Bartow County. It Is Served By The Louisville And Nashville, The Nashville, Chattanooga And St. Louis And The Seaboard Air Line Railways. The Population Was 4,350 In ...

Cartesianism
Cartesianism Signifies The Philosophy Of Rene Descartes And His Followers, More Especially Antoine Arnauld, Arnold Geulincx And Nicolas Malebranche. The Most Characteristic Views Of This Whole School Of Thought Are (1) Its Dualism, That Is, The View That Minds (or Souls) And Material Bodies Are Ab Solutely Distinct Substances Incapable ...

Cartesians
Cartesians, The Name By Which The Followers Of The French Philosopher, Descartes, And His School Are Now Generally Known. The Word Was Taken From The Last Syllable Of The Founder's Name, And Although Spinoza And Leibnitz Are Sometimes Included Among Cartesians, Their Modifications Ultimately Exclude Them. The Accomplishments Of Descartes' ...

Carthage
Carthage, One Of The Most Famous Cities Of Antiquity, On The North Coast Of Africa; It Was Founded About 814-813 B.c. By The Phoenicians, Destroyed For The First Time By The Romans In 146 B.c., Rebuilt By The Romans In 122 B.c., And Finally De Stroyed By The Arabs In ...

Carthage_2
Carthage, A City In The Ozark Region Of South-west Mis Souri, U.s.a., On Spring River, At An Altitude Of 95oft.; The County Seat Of Jasper County. It Is On Federal Highways 66 And 75, And Is Served By The Frisco, The Missouri Pacific And The Southwestern Missouri (electric) Railways. The ...

Carthage_3
Carthage, A Village Of Jefferson County, (n.y.), U.s.a., 75m. N. By W. Of Utica, On The Black River, 742ft. Above Sea Level, And Served By The New York Central Railroad. The Popu Lation In 1930 Federal Census 4,46o. It Is In A Dairying And Cheese-manufacturing Region, And Is Within Easy ...

Carthusians
Carthusians, An Order Of Monks Founded By St. Bruno (q.v.). In 1084 Bruno And His Six Companions Presented Them Selves Before The Bishop Of Grenoble And Explained To Him Their Desire To Lead An Ascetic Life In A Solitary Place. He Pointed Out To Them A Desolate Spot Named Chartreuse, ...

Cartilage
Cartilage, The Firm Elastic And Gristly Connective Tissue In Vertebrates. (see Connective Tissues And Joints.) ...

Carton
Carton. A Light Cardboard Box, Used For Packing Small Articles Of Many Kinds, Including Foods, Confectionery, Tobacco, Stationery, Medicines, Dentifrices, Soaps, Household Pastes, Light Hardware, Etc. The Careful Packing Of Such Goods Is One Of The Remarkable Changes In Industrial And Commercial Methods Which Marked The Opening Of The Aoth ...

Cartoon
Cartoon, Originally A Preliminary Drawing, Executed To Full Scale And Often In Colour, Of The Design To Be Carried Out In Tapestry, Mosaic, Mural Painting, Or Other Work Of Art, And Usually Upon A Heavy Or Durable Paper. The Cartoon When Used For Tapes Try Is Usually Placed In The ...

Cartouche
Cartouche. The Term Is Applied In Architecture To Or Namentation In Scroll Form, Especially To The Elaborate, Scrolled Frames Around Tablets Or Coats Of Arms ; By Extension, The Word Is Applied To Any Oval Shape, Or Even To A Decorative Shield, Whether Scrolled Or Not. The Word Is Also ...

Cartridge
Cartridge (corruption Of Fr. Cartouche), A Case, Of Brass Or Other Metal, Cardboard, Silk, Flannel, Etc., Containing An Explo Sive Charge, And Usually The Projectile Also, For Small Arms And Ordnance. (see Ammunition.) ...

Carucate Or Carrucate
Carucate Or Carrucate (from The Med. Lat. Car Rucata, From Carruca, A Wheeled Plough), A Measure Of Land, Based Probably On The Area That Could Be Ploughed By A Team Of Oxen In A Year; Hence "carucage" Means A Tax Levied On Each "carucate" Of Land (see Hide). ...

Carupano
Carupano, A Town And Port Of The State Of Bermudez, Venezuela, 65m. N.e. Of The City Of Cumana. Pop. (1920), About Ii,000. Carupano Is Situated On The Caribbean Coast On An Open Roadstead And Is A Port Of Call For Several Regular Steamship Lines. The Country Immediately Behind The Town ...

Caruthersville
Caruthersville, A City In The South-east Corner Of Missouri, U.s.a., On The Mississippi River; Served By The Deering Southwestern And The Frisco Railways; The County Seat Of Pemis Cot County. The Population In 1920 Was 4,785. It Is In A Cotton-growing And Lumbering Region, And Has Cotton Gins And Compresses, ...

Carving Tools
Carving Tools, The Various Instruments Used In The Art Of Cutting Wood, Stone, Ivory, Etc., For Ornamental Purposes. Primitive Peoples Employed Sharpened Fish-bones, Flint And Shells In Carving Wood And Ivory Articles, Accomplishing Results That To-day Would Seem Impossible. After The Discovery Of Steel The Tools For Carving Were Developed ...

Carving
Carving. In Carving A Long Sharp Knife And A Two-pronged Fork Are Essential, And A Steel Should Also Be Provided. Sirloin.—place The Joint With The Chine Bone To The Left And The Fillet Underneath. Release The Meat From The Chine Bone And Also From The Blade Bone For About Three-quarters ...

Caryatid
Caryatid, A Draped Female Figure Used As A Support, Especially In Greek, Roman And Renaissance Architecture. ...

Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae, A Family Of Dicotyledonous Plants, Containing About 8o Genera With 1,300 Species, And Widely Dis Tributed, Especially In Temperate, Alpine And Arctic Regions. The Plants Are Herbs, Sometimes Becoming Shrubby At The Base, With Opposite, Simple, Generally Uncut Leaves And Swollen Nodes. The Main Axis Ends In A Flower ...

Casa Grande
Casa Grande, A National Reserve, Technically Known As A National Monument, In Pinal County, Ariz., Which Has Within Its Bounds Some Of The Most Noteworthy Relics Of A Prehistoric Age And People Within The Limits Of The United States. The Ruins Are Situated Near The Left Bank Of The Gila ...

Casablanca
Casablanca, A Seaport On The Atlantic Coast Of Morocco, In 33° 27' N., 7° 46' W. The Town Is Built On The Site Of The Ancient City Of The Same Name, Is Rectangular In Shape, With Its Base Toward The Sea. The Central Point Of The City Is The Place ...

Casale Monferrato
Casale Monferrato, A Town And Episcopal See Of Piedmont, Italy, In The Province Of Alessandria, 2im. N.n.w. By Rail From The Town Of Alessandria. Pop. (1921) 20,453 (town) ; (commune). It Lies In The Plain On The Right Bank Of The Po, 3 7 7f T. Above Sea-level, And Is ...

Casamari
Casamari, A Cistercian Abbey In The Province Of Rome, 6m. E.s.e. Of Veroli. It Marks The Site Of Cereatae, The Birthplace Of Marius, Afterwards Known As Cereatae Marianae. The Abbey Is A Fine Example Of Burgundian Early-gothic (1203-17), Paral Leled In Italy By Fossanuova Alone (which Is Almost Contemporary With ...

Casas Grandes
Casas Grandes ("great Houses"), A Small Village Of Mexico, In The State Of Chihuahua, On The Casas Grandes Or San Miguel River, About 35m. S. Of Llanos And 15om. N.w. Of The City Of Chihuahua. The Railway From Ciudad Juarez To Terrazas Passes Through The Town. It Is Celebrated For ...

Cascade Mountains
Cascade Mountains, A Continuation Northward Of The Sierra Nevada, About 500m. Across The States Of Oregon And Washington, U.s.a., Into British Columbia. In U.s. Territory The Range Lies From 1 Oo To 150m. From The Coast. The Cascades Are Separated On The South From The Sierras By Deep Valleys Near ...

Cascara Sagrada
Cascara Sagrada, The Bark Of The California Buck Thorn (rhamnus Purshiana) Used In Medicine. An Active Principle Anthra-gluco-sagradin Has Been Isolated By Tschirch. Cascara Sagrada Is One Of The Most Useful Laxatives, Since Not Only Does It Empty The Bowel, But Acts As A Tonic To The Intestine And Tends ...

Case Hardening
Case Hardening. The Process Of Imparting To Steel Or Wrought Iron An Extremely Hard Surface. It Is Of Great Impor Tance In Cases, And They Are Many, In Which It Is Necessary To Combine, In An Article Manufactured Of Iron Or Steel, Tensile Strength With Resistance To Surface Attrition. Case ...

Casein
Casein. The Milk Of All Mammals Contains Casein. Cheese Is A Modified Form Of Casein. It Is A Complex Product Akin To White Of Egg, Belonging To The Class Of Chemical Compounds Known As Albumins. In Milk, Casein Occurs In Combination With Lime (calcium Oxide) As A Calcium Salt, And ...

Casemate
Casemate (ital. Casa, A House, And Matta, Dull Or Dim), An Armoured Vault Or Chamber Or, In Field Fortification, A Bomb Proof Shelter; In Architecture, A Hollow Moulding, Chiefly Employed In Cornices. ...