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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Pierre Crozat
Crozat, Pierre (1661-1740), French Art Collector, Was Born At Toulouse, Of A Family Who Were Prominent French Finan Ciers And Collectors. He Became Treasurer To The King In Paris, And Acquired A Magnificent Collection Of Pictures And Objets D'art, Which Descended To His Nephews, Louis Francois (d. 1750), Joseph Antoine ...

Pierre Curie
Curie, Pierre (1859-1906) And Marie French Physicists. Pierre Curie Was Born In Paris On May 15, And Educated At The Sorbonne, Where He Later Became Professor Of Physics. His Early Researches Were On Piezoelectricity, The Magnetic Properties Of Bodies At Different Temperatures And Other Topics. He Was Chiefly Known For ...

Pierre Francois Le Courayer
Courayer, Pierre Francois Le 7 76), French Roman Catholic Theologian, Was Born In Rouen On Nov. 17, 1681. While Canon Regular And Librarian Of The Abbey Of St. Genevieve At Paris He Corresponded With Archbishop Wake On The Subject Of Episcopal Succession In England And So Gained Material For His ...

Piet Arnoldus Cronje
Cronje, Piet Arnoldus (c. I ), Boer Gen Eral, Was Born About 184o In The Transvaal About The Time Of The Great Trek, And Began The Insurrection In The Transvaal After 188o By Resisting The Distraint For Taxes On The Goods Of A Boer Who Had Declined To Pay. He ...

Plagihedral Class
Plagihedral Class (plagihedral-hemihedral ; Pentagonal-icositetrahedral; Gyroidal.) In This Class There Are The Full Number Of Axes Of Symmetry (three Tetrad, Four Triad And Six Dyad), But No Planes Of Symmetry And No Centre Of Symmetry. Pentagonal Icositetrahedron (fig. 40).—this Is The Only Simple Form In This Class Which Differs Geometrically ...

Ploughs
Ploughs The Primary Object Of Ploughing Is To Break Up The Soil To Form A The Plough Does This By Cutting And Inverting The Soil In Slices Or Furrows 9 To 14in. Wide And To A Depth Of 4 To 6in. Or Sometimes More. The Inversion Of The Furrow Slice ...

Poor Farm County Farm
County Farm, Poor Farm, Poor House Or Almshouse, Is, In Name, A Public Institution Maintained As A Shelter For The Aged Poor. As The Terms "poor Farm" And "poor House," Are Undesirable, And The Term "county Farm" Inaccurate, The Present Tendency In The United States Is To Include All Under ...

Primitive Currency
Currency, Primitive. Among Peoples Of Primitive Culture Is Found A Strange Diversity Of Objects Commonly Termed "money" Or "currency." These Are Of Two Main Kinds, One Corn Prising Articles Of Practical Use, The Other Those Of Which The Pri Mary Purpose Is Ornament. The Rock-salt Of Abyssinia, The Hoes Of ...

Prosper Jolyot De Crebillon
Crebillon, Prosper Jolyot De French Tragic Poet, Was Born At Dijon, Where His Father, Melchior Jolyot, Was Notary-royal. In 1705 He Produced Idomenee; In 1707 His Atree Et Thyeste Was Repeatedly Acted At Court; Electre Appeared In 1709; And In 1711 He Produced His Finest Play, The Rhadamiste Et Zenobie, ...

Protection Free Trade
Free Trade, Protection, And Safeguarding Of Industry.) Customs Tariffs Of The United Kingdom (blue Book G 8706 Of 1897), Is The Best Detailed Account Of Customs History To That Date ; For The Years After 1897 It Is Necessary To Consult The Statistical Abstract Of The United Kingdom, And The ...

Prudence Crandall
Crandall, Prudence (1803-189o), American School Teacher Of Quaker Parentage, Was Born At Hopkinton, R.i., Sept. 3, 1803. She Was Educated In The Friends' School At Providence, Taught At Plainfield, Conn., And In 1831 Established A Private Academy For Girls At Canterbury, Conn. Although The School Was Recognized As One Of ...

Pulverizing And Consolidating Implements
Pulverizing And Consolidating Implements After Land Has Been Ploughed It Must Be Broken Down Into Very Fine Particles And Consolidated In Order To Form A Seed-bed. The Chief Pulverizing Implements Are Cultivators, Harrows And Rollers. Cultivators And Harrows Work Practically On The Same Principle And Use Either Tines Or Teeth, ...

Pyramidal Class
Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic-tetartohedral.) Here The Only Element Of Symmetry Is The Tetrad Axis. The Pyramids Of The First { Hhl } , Second { Hol } ,and Third { Hkl } , Orders Have Each Only Four Faces At One Or Other End Of The Crystal And Are Hemimorphic. All ...

Pyramidal Class_2
Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic.) Here There Is Only One Dyad Axis In Which Two Planes Of Symmetry Intersect. The Crystals, Are Usually So Placed That The Dyad Axis Coincides With The Vertical Crys Tallographic Axis, And The Planes Of Symmetry Are Also Vertical. The Pyramid { Hkl } Has Only Four ...

Pyritohedral Class
Pyritohedral Class (parallel-faced Hemihedral ; Dodecahedral.) Crystals Of This Class Possess Three Cubic Planes Of Symmetry But No Dodecahedral Planes. There Are Only Three Dyad Axes Of Symmetry, Which Coincide With The Crystal Lographic Axes; In Addition There Are Three Triad Axes And A Centre Of Symmetry. Here The Cube, ...

Quintin Craufurd
Craufurd, Quintin British Author, Was Born At Kilwinning And Entered The Service Of The East India Company. Returning To Europe Before The Age Of 4o, He Settled In Paris, Where He Formed A Good Library And Collection Of Paintings, Coins, And Other Objects Of Antiquarian Interest. Crau Furd Was On ...

Quintus Curtius Rufus
Curtius Rufus, Quintus, Biographer Of Alexander The Great. Modern Authorities Regard Him As A Rhetorician Who Flourished During The Reign Of Claudius (a.d. 41-54). His Work (de Rebus Gestis Alexandri Magni) Originally Consisted Of Ten Books, Of Which The First Two Are Entirely Lost, And The Remaining Eight Are Incomplete. ...

Rachel Crothers
Crothers, Rachel (1878- ), American Playwright, Was Born In Bloomington, Ill., In 1878. She Graduated At The Illinois State Normal School In 1892 And Then Studied Dramatic Art In Boston And New York. She Made Her First Stage Appear Ance As A Member Of Felix Morris's Company In New York ...

Ralph Adams Cram
Cram, Ralph Adams ), American Architect, Was Born At Hampton Falls (n.h.), On Dec. 16, 1863. He Was Educated At The Westford (mass.) Academy And The Exeter (n.h.) High School. He Studied Architecture, And In 1889 Opened An Architect's Office In Boston. Recognized As An Authority On Mediaeval Architecture And ...

Ralph Cudworth
Cudworth, Ralph (1617-1688), English Philosopher, Was Born At Aller, Somersetshire, The Son Of Dr. Ralph Cud Worth (d. 1624), Rector Of Aller, Formerly Fellow Of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Cudworth Was Sent To His Father's College, And Was Elected Fellow In 1639. In 1642 He Published A Dis Course Concerning The ...

Ramon De La Cruz
Cruz, Ramon De La Spanish Dramatist. His Sainetes Or Farcical Sketches Of Madrid Life, Such As Las Tertulias De Madrid And El Prado Por La Noche, Are Delightful Specimens Of Satiric Observation. See E. Cotarelo Y Mori, Don Ranson De La Cruz Y Sus Obras (1899). ...

Raw Cotton
Raw Cotton Cotton-ginning Or Separation Of The Lint From The Seed, Which Is The First Process Of Manufacture, Is Performed Practically In The Field In Order To Save Unnecessary Transport Of The Seed, Which Forms About Two-thirds Of The Weight Of The Harvested Crop. The Ginning Outturn, As It Is ...

Renee Caroline De Froullay
Crequy, Renee Caroline De Froullay, Marquise De (1714-1803) , Née De Froullay, Was Born On Oct. 19, 1714, At The Château Of Monfleaux (mayenne). She Married In 1737 Louis Marie, Marquis De Crequy, Who Died Four Years After The Marriage. In 1755 Madame De Crequy Began To Receive In Paris, ...

Results Of The Crusades
Results Of The Crusades In One Vital Respect The Result Of The Crusades May Be Written Down As Failure. They Ended, Not In The Occupation Of The East By The Christian West, But In The Conquest Of The West By The Mohammedan East. The Crusades Began With The Seljuk Turk ...

Rhombohedral Class
Rhombohedral Class Parallel-faced Hemihedral.) The Only Elements Of Symmetry Are The Triad Axis And A Centre Of Symmetry. The General Form { Hkl } Is A Rhombohedron, And Is A Hemihedral Form, With Parallel Faces, Of The Scalenohedron. The Form { Hkl 1, Where H-2k -}-1 = O, Is Also ...

Rhombohedral Division
Rhombohedral Division In The Rhombohedral Or Trigonal Division Of The Hexagonal System There Are Seven Symmetry-classes, All Of Which Possess A Single Triad Axis Of Symmetry. ...

Richard Courtenay
Courtenay, Richard (d. 1415), English Prelate, Was A Son Of Sir Philip Courtenay Of Powderham Castle, Near Exeter, And A Grandson Of Hugh Courtenay, Earl Of Devon (d. Educated At Exeter College, Oxford, Courtenay Held Several Pre Bends, Was Dean Of St. Asaph And Then Of Wells, And Became Bishop ...

Richard Cox
Cox, Richard (i500?-1581), Dean Of Westminster And Bishop Of Ely, Was Born At Whaddon, Buckinghamshire, Educated At The Benedictine Priory Of St. Leonard Snelshall Near Whaddon, At Eton, And At King's College, Cambridge, Where He Graduated In 1524. At Wolsey's Invitation He Became A Member Of The Cardinal's New Foundation ...

Richard Crashaw
Crashaw, Richard (1613?-1649), English Poet, Styled "the Divine," Was Born In London About 1613. He Was The Son Of A Strongly Anti-papistical Divine, Dr. William Crashaw (1572— 1626). Richard Crashaw Was Educated At Charterhouse, And At Pembroke College, Cambridge, Where He Took The Degree Of B.a. In 1634. The Publication ...

Richard Cromwell
Cromwell, Richard Lord Protector Of England, Eldest Surviving Son Of Oliver Cromwell And Of Eliza Beth Bourchier, Was Born On Oct. 4, 1626. He Served In The Parlia Mentary Army, And In 1647 Was Admitted A Member Of Lincoln's Inn. In 1649 He Married Dorothy, Daughter Of Richard Mayor Or ...

Richard Cumberland
Cumberland, Richard (1631-1718), English Phi Losopher And Bishop Of Peterborough, The Son Of A Citizen Of London, Was Born In London On July 15, 1631. He Was Educated In St. Paul's School, And At Magdalene College, Cambridge, And In 1667 Was Presented To The Rectory Of Allhallows At Stamford. ...

Richard Cumberland_2
Cumberland, Richard (1732-1811), English Dram Atist, Was Born In The Master's Lodge Of Trinity College, Cambridge, On Feb. 19, 1732. He Was The Great-grandson Of The Bishop Of Peterborough; And His Father, Dr. Denison Cumberland, Became Successively Bishop Of Clonfert And Of Kilmore. His Mother Was Joanna, The Youngest Daughter ...

Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham
Cunninghame Graham, Robert Bontine (1852-1936), Scottish Writer, Eldest Son Of William Cunninghame Graham Of Ardoch And Gartmore, Was Educated At Harrow. He Spent Much Of His Youth Cattle-farming In The Argentine, And Travelled Widely In Paraguay, Mexico, Spain And Morocco. A Spanish Grandmother Made The Spanish Language And National Temperament ...

Robert Craufurd
Craufurd, Robert (1764-1812), British Eral, One Of The Quickest And Most Brilliant Of Wellington's Lieuten Ants In The Peninsular War, Was Born At Newark, Ayrshire, On May 5, 1764, And Entered The 25th Foot In 1779. He Saw Service In The Campaigns Against Tippoo Sahib (179o-92) ; With The Aus ...

Robert Crowley
Crowley, Robert (1518?-1588), English Religious And Social Reformer, Was Educated At Magdalen College, Oxford, Where He Was A Foundation Scholar And A Fellow. He Set Up A Printing Office In Ely Rents, Holborn, Where He Printed Many Of His Own Writings. As A Typographer, His Most Notable Production Was An ...

Robert Monsey Rolfe Cranworth
Cranworth, Robert Monsey Rolfe, Baron (179o–i868), Lord Chancellor Of England, Elder Son Of The Rev. E. Rolfe, Was Born At Cranworth, Norfolk, On Dec. 18, 1790. Educated At Bury St. Edmund's, Winchester, And Trinity College, Cambridge, He Was Called To The Bar At Lincoln's Inn In 1816, And Attached Himself ...

Robert William Dale
Dale, Robert William (1829-1895), English Con Gregationalist Divine And Educational Reformer, Born In London On Dec. 1, 1829, Was Educated At Spring Hill College, Birmingham. In 1853 He Was Invited To Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, As Co Pastor With John Angell James, On Whose Death In 1859 He Became Sole ...

Rubianus Johannes Jager C
Crotus, Rubianus (johannes Jager) (c. 1480—c. , German Humanist, Born At Dornheim And Educated At Er Furt, Later Becoming Professor Of Theology At Cologne. In 1515 He Contributed To The Collection, Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum, His Satirical Letters On Scholasticism And Monasticism. After Four Years In Italy, Crotus Became Rector Of ...

Runn Of Or Rann
Cutch, Runn Of Or Rann Of Kachh (see Indian Desert). A Salt-impregnated Tract In The State Of Cutch. It Represents The Seaward Margin Of The Indian Desert. ...

Saint Cunibert
Cunibert, Saint (c. 590-663), Bishop Of Cologne, Was Educated At Treves, Where He Became Archdeacon. Af Ter Becoming Bishop Of Cologne In 623, He Assisted At The Synods Of Reims (625) And Of Clichy (626). At The Court Of The Merovingians, Especially Under Sigebert Iii. (d. 656), He Exercised Great ...

Saint Cuthbert
Cuthbert, Saint (d. 687), Bishop Of Lindisfarne, Was Probably A Northumbrian By Birth. He Entered The Monastery Of Melrose In 65r, Where, After Having Spent A Short Time In The Monastery Of Ripon, He Succeeded Boisel As Prior In 661. Three Years Later He Became Prior At Lindisfarne, Retiring In ...

Saint Cyprian
Cyprian, Saint (caecilius Cyprianus, Called Thascius) (c. 200-258), The Illustrious Bishop Of Carthage, Was Born Of A Wealthy Patrician Family At Carthage, Where He Became A Teacher Of Rhetoric. About 246 He Was Converted By The Priest Caecilianus. His Enthusiasm And Ability, Together With His De Votion Of His Wealth ...

Saint Cyril
Cyril, Saint (3 , Made Bishop Of Alexandria C. 412. He Had Hardly Entered Upon His Office When He Closed And Plundered The Churches Of The Novatians, And Drove The Jews In Thousands From The City. The Prefect Of Egypt, Orestes, Who En Deavoured To Withstand His Furious Zeal, Was ...

Saint Cyril_2
Cyril, Saint (c. 315-386), Bishop Of Jerusalem, Where Probably He Was Born, Was Ordained A Presbyter In 345. In He Was Elevated To The See Of Jerusalem. His Metropolitan, Aca Cius Of Caesarea, Inclined To Arianism, While Cyril Espoused The Nicene Creed And Was, In Consequence, Deposed, Till The Acces ...

Samuel Adjai Crowther
Crowther, Samuel Adjai African Missionary-bishop, Was Born In Ochugu In The Yoruba Country, West Africa, And Was Sold Into Slavery In 1821. Next Year He Was Rescued, With Many Other Captives, By H.m. Ship "myrmidon," And Was Landed At Sierra Leone. Educated There In A Missionary School, He Became A ...

Samuel Cousins
Cousins, Samuel (1801-1887), English Mezzotint En Graver, Was Born At Exeter, May G, I8or. He Was Pre-eminently The Interpreter Of Sir Thomas Lawrence. During His Apprentice Ship To S. W. Reynolds He Engraved Many Of The Best Amongst The 36o Little Mezzotints Illustrating The Works Of Sir Joshua Reynolds. In ...

Samuel Cox
Cox, Samuel (1826-1893), English Baptist Divine, Was Born In London On April 19, 1826. He Worked In The London Docks And Then Entered The Baptist College At Stepney. In 1851 He Became Pastor Of A Baptist Church At Southsea, Removing In 1855 To Ryde And In 1863 To Nottingham. He ...

Samuel Crompton
Crompton, Samuel English Inventor, Was Born On Dec. 3, At Firwood, Near Bolton-le-moors, Lan Cashire, And Went Into A Spinning-mill As A Lad. The Defects Of The Spinning Jenny Inspired Him With The Idea Of Devising Some Thing Better, And For Five Or Six Years The Effort Absorbed All His ...

Samuel Rutherford Crockett
Crockett, Samuel Rutherford Scottish Novelist, Was Born At Duchrae, Galloway, On Sept. 24, 186o, The Son Of A Galloway Farmer. He Was Brought Up On A Galloway Farm, And Graduated From Edinburgh University In 1879. After Some Years Of Travel He Became In 1886 Minister Of Penicuik, But Eventually Abandoned ...

Savinien Cyrano De Bergerac
Cyrano De Bergerac, Savinien French Romance-writer And Dramatist, Son Of Abel De Cyrano, Seigneur De Mauvieres Et De Bergerac, Was Born In Paris On March 6, 1620. He Studied With A Country Priest, And Had For A Fel Low Pupil His Friend And Future Biographer, Henri Lebret. He Then Studied ...

Scalenohedral Class
Scalenohedral Class (bisphenoidal-hemihedral.) Here There Are Only Three Dyad Axes And Two Planes Of Sym Metry, The Former Coinciding With The Crystallographic Axes And The Latter Bisecting The Angles Between The Horizontal Pair. The Dyad Axis Of Symmetry, Which In This Class Coincides With The Principal Axis Of The Crystal, ...

Seed Sowing Machines
Seed-sowing Machines The Two Ancient Methods Of Sowing Seed Are Broadcasting And Dibbling. The Former Method, Employed For Example With Cereal Crops, Results In The Haphazard Deposit Of Seed At Varying Depths And Distances : The Latter Method Employed For Setting Larger Seeds, Is Laborious. In Modern Farming Practice An ...

Simon Dach
Dach, Simon (1605-1659), German Lyrical Poet, Was Born At Memel In East Prussia On July 29, 1605. Educated In The Classical Schools Of Konigsberg, Wittenberg And Magdeburg, He Entered The University Of Konigsberg In 1626 As A Student Of Theology And Philosophy. He Was Professor Of Poetry At Konigs Berg ...

Sir Arthur William Currie
Currie, Sir Arthur William Cana Dian Soldier And Administrator, Was Born At Napperton, Ont., On Dec. 5, 1875, Commanded The 1st Canadian Division, 1914-17, And The Canadian Corps In France, 1917-18. Currie Was Given The C.b. In 1915, K.c.m.g. 1917, K.c.b. [918 And G.c.m.g. 1919; He Also Received French And ...

Sir Cresswell Cresswell
Cresswell, Sir Cresswell Eng Lish Judge, Was A Descendant Of An Old Northumberland Family, And Was Born At Newcastle In 1794. He Was Educated At The Charterhouse And At Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He Took His Degree In 1814, Studied At The Middle Temple, And Was Called To The Bar In ...

Sir Donald Currie
Currie, Sir Donald (1825-1909), British Shipowner, Was Born At Greenock On Sept. 17, 1825. By A Fortunate Chance He Attracted The Notice Of The Chief Partner In The Newly-started Cunard Steamship Line, Who Found Him A Post In That Company. In 1849 The Cunard Company Started A Service Between Havre ...

Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy
Creasy, Sir Edward Shepherd English Historian, Was Born At Bexley In Kent, And Educated At Eton And King's College, Cambridge. He Was Called To The Bar At Lincoln's Inn In 1837. In 1840 He Was Appointed Professor Of Mod Ern And Ancient History In The University Of London, And In ...

Sir Eyre Alexander Crowe
Crowe, Sir Eyre Alexander Brit Ish Civil Servant, Was Born At Leipzig, July 30, 1864. Educated At Dusseldorf, Berlin And Paris, He Entered The Foreign Office In 1885, Became Counsellor Of Embassy In 1907, And Assistant Under Secretary Of State In 1912. He Was A British Delegate At The Sec ...

Sir Frederic Hymen Cowen
Cowen, Sir Frederic Hymen Com Poser, Was Born At Kingston, Jamaica, On Jan. 29, 1852. At The Age Of Four He Was Brought To England, Where His Father Became Treasurer To The Opera At Her Majesty's Theatre And Private Secre Tary To The Earl Of Dudley. His First Teacher Was ...

Sir George William Cox
Cox, Sir George William English Miscellaneous And Historical Writer, Was Born On Jan Io, 1827, At Benares, India, And Died At Walmer On Feb. G, 1902. Educated At Rugby And Trinity College, Oxford, He Was Ordained In 185o, And Succeeded To The Baronetcy In 1877. He Wrote Aryan Mythology (187o), ...

Sir Herbert Croft
Croft, Sir Herbert, Bart. (1751-1816), English Author, Was Born At Dunster Park, Berkshire, Son Of Herbert Croft Of Stifford, Essex, And Was Educated At University College, Oxford. In I780 He Published Love And Madness, A Story Too True, In .a Series Of Letters Between Parties Whose Names Could Perhaps Be ...

Sir James Croft
Croft, Sir James (d. 159o), Lord Deputy Of Ireland. After Representing Herefordshire In Parliament In 1541 He Be Came Governor Of Haddington In 1549, Lord Deputy Of Ireland And Later Governor Of Berwick. In 1570 Elizabeth Made Him A Privy Councillor And Controller Of Her Household. He Was One Of ...

Sir John Coventry
Coventry, Sir John (d. 1682), Grandson Of Thomas, Lord Keeper Coventry, Was Returned To The Long Parliament In 1640 As Member For Evesham. During The Civil War He Served For The King, And At The Restoration Was Knighted. In 1667, And In The Following Parliaments Of 1678, 1679 And 1681, ...

Sir John Steven Cowans
Cowans, Sir John Steven (1862-1921), British General, Was Born On March I 1, Carlisle, Passed Through Sandhurst And The Staff College, And Held Many Important Staff Positions In England And India. In 1912 He Became Quartermas Ter-general, And In 1913 Was Created K.c.b. The Outbreak Of The World War Thus ...

Sir Joseph Archer Crowe
Crowe, Sir Joseph Archer English Consular Official And Art Critic, Son Of Eyre Crowe, Was Born In London On Oct. 25, 1825. He Studied Painting Under Delaroche In Paris, Where His Father Was Correspondent Of The Morning Chronicle. During The Crimean War He Was The Correspondent Of The Illustrated London ...

Sir Percy Cox
Cox, Sir Percy (1864-1937 ), British Administrator, Was Born On Nov. 2o, 1864, Educated At Harrow And Sandhurst, And Entered The Army In 1884, Serving In The End Battalion Of The Cameronians Until 1889. He Gained His Very Great Knowledge Of And Experience In Eastern Politics And Diplomacy First In ...

Sir Philip Cunliffe Lister
Cunliffe-lister, Sir Philip ), British Statesman, Was Born On May 1, 1884, At Ayton, Yorkshire. The Youngest Son Of Lt.-col. Yarburgh G. Lloyd Greame, He Assumed By Royal Warrant The Name Of Cunliffe-lister In Dec. 1924. He Was Educated At Winchester And University College, Oxford, And Was Called To The ...

Sir Roger De Coverley
Coverley, Sir Roger De, A Name Taken By Steele (q.v.) From The North Country Tune "roger Of Coverley" And Applied To The Country Member Of The Club Where His Spectator Studied Human Nature. In The Second Number Of The Spectator He Is Introduced As "a Gentleman Of Worcestershire Of Ancient ...

Sir Samuel Cunard
Cunard, Sir Samuel, Bart. (1787-1865), British Civil Engineer, Founder Of The Cunard Line Of Steamships, Was Born At Halifax, Nova Scotia, On Nov. 21, 1787. In Conjunction With Messrs. Burns Of Glasgow And Messrs. Maclver Of Liverpool, Proprietors Of Rival Lines Of Coasting Steamers Between Glasgow And Liverpool, He Formed ...

Sir Thomas Craig
Craig, Sir Thomas (c. 1538-1608), Scottish Jurist And Poet, Was Born About 1538, A Member Of The Craigfintray Family. He Was Educated At St. Andrews, Where He Took The B.a. Degree In 1555. From St. Andrews He Went To France, To Study The Canon And The Civil Law. He Returned ...

Sir Thomas Dale
Dale, Sir Thomas (d. 1619), British Naval Commander And Colonial Deputy-governor Of Virginia. From About 1588 To 1609 He Was In The Netherlands With The English Army Originally Under Robert Dudley, Earl Of Leicester; In 16o6 He Was Knighted By James I. ; From 1611 To 1616 He Was Actually ...

Sir William Coventry
Coventry, Sir William (c. 1628-1686), British Statesman And Son Of Thomas, Lord Coventry, Entered Queen's College, Oxford, But During The Civil War Went To France Where He Vainly Attempted To Secure Foreign Assistance For The Royalists. In 1660 He Was Appointed Secretary To James, Duke Of York, Lord High Admiral ...

Sir William Crookes
Crookes, Sir William English Chem Ist And Physicist, Was Born In London On June 17, 1832. He Studied Chemistry At The Royal College Of Chemistry And Became An Assistant Under A. W. Von Hofmann. In 1854 He Became Assistant In The Meteorological Department Of The Radcliffe Ob Servatory, Oxford, And ...

Sir William Cubitt
Cubitt, Sir William (1785-1861), English Engineer, Was Born In 1785 At Dilham In Norfolk, Where His Father Was A Miller. Among His Works Were A Number Of Canals, Including Drain Age Sluices, Besides Docks And Coal Drops, And The S.e. Railway, Of Which He Was Chief Engineer. He Was Consulted ...

Sir William Randal Cremer
Cremer, Sir William Randal Eng Lish Pacifist, Was Born At Fareham, Wilts., On March 18, 1838, And At 12 Years Of Age Went To Work In A Shipyard. He Was Then Ap Prenticed As A Carpenter, And Was One Of The Founders Of The Amalgamated Society Of Carpenters And Joiners ...

Special Curves
Curves, Special. Partly Due To The Studies Of The Greeks In Pure Geometry, But Largely To The Influence Of Analytic Geometry (q.v.), There Have Been Developed A Large Number Of Special Curves Which Have Received Names Which Are More Or Less Generally Recognized. Such Curves May Be Classified In Various ...

Stephen Crane
Crane, Stephen Goo), American Author, The 14th Child Of Jonathan Crane, Methodist Pastor, Was Born In Newark (n.j.), On Nov. 1, 1871. Crane Attended Lafayette And Syracuse Universities But Took No Degree. He Began Newspaper Work At An Early Age. He Published His First Book, Maggie: A Girl Of The ...

Stephen Czarniecki
Czarniecki, Stephen Polish General, Fought In The Prussian Campaigns Against Gustavus Adolphus (1626-29), And Under Wladislaus Iv. In The Muscovite Campaign Of 1633. In The Invasion Of Poland By Charles X. Of Sweden (1655), A National Army Under Czarniecki Ultimately Drove Out The Swedes, And After The Peace Of Oliva ...

Sula
Sula.) Mediaeval History.—what Has In Modern Times Been Known As Croatia-slavonia Formed Part Of The Roman Province Of Pan Nonia, The Chief Towns Being Siscia (sisek), Emona (ljubljana) And Sirmium (mitrovica In Syrmia). It Was Conquered By The Ostrogoths, Recovered By Justinian In S35 And Conquered In 568 By The ...

Table Cutlery
Table Cutlery The Production Of Blades For Table Cutlery Is Accomplished In Three Successive Stages: The First Consisting Of Forging The Steel Into The Desired Shape, The Second In Grinding The Steel To A Cutting Edge And Imparting A Polish To The Steel, And The Third In Finishing The Blade ...

Tetartohedral Class
Tetartohedral Class (tetrahedral-pentagonal-dodecahedral.) Here,in Addition To Four Polar Triad Axes, The Only Other Elements Of Symmetry Are Three Dyad Axes, Which Coincide With The Crystallographic Axes. Six Of The Simple Forms, The Cube, Tetrahedron, Rhombic Dodecahedron, Deltoid Do Decahedron, Triakis-tetrahedron And Pentagonal Dodecahedron, Are Geometrically The Same In This Class ...

Tetrahedral Class
Tetrahedral Class (tetrahedral-hemihedral ; Hexakis-tetrahedral In This Class There Is No Centre Of Symmetry Nor Cubic Planes Of Symmetry; The Three Tetrad Axes Become Dyad Axes Of Symmetry, And The Four Triad Axes Are Polar, I.e., They Are Associated With Different Faces At Their Two Ends. The Six Dodecahedral Planes ...

The Care Of Cutlery
The Care Of Cutlery The Universal Use Of Cutlery Makes It Desirable That Some In Formation Should Be Given On Its Care And Maintenance. An Im Portant Precaution To Take With Table Cutlery Is To Avoid Washing The Blades In Water Which Is Too Hot. The White Handles Become Plastic ...

The Cotton Control Board
Cotton Control Board, The. The Cotton Con Trol Board, Which Controlled The Lancashire Cotton Industry During The Later Phases Of The World War, Was Appointed By The Board Of Trade In June 1917. For Some Time Previously Imports Of Cotton From The United States Had Been Drastically Curtailed By The ...

The Crusades Of St
The Crusades Of St. Louis The Seventh Crusade.—as The Loss Of Jerusalem In 1 187 Produced The Third Crusade, So Its Loss In 1244 Produced The Seventh : As The Preaching Of The Fifth Crusade Had Taken Place In The Lateran Council Of 1215, So That Of The Seventh Crusade ...

The Curtis Publishing Company
Curtis Publishing Company, The, An Ameri Can Publishing Company With Headquarters In Philadelphia. It Owns And Publishes The Ladies' Home Journal, The Saturday Eve Ning Post And The Country Gentleman, Which Rank Among The Larg Est Periodicals In The World Both As To Circulations And Advertising Patronage. The Ladies' Home ...

The Dalles
Dalles, The, A City Of Northern Oregon, U.s.a., On The Columbia River, 90 M. E. Of Portland ; The County Seat Of Wasco County. It Is On The Columbia River Highway And Is Served By The Great Southern And The Union Pacific Railways. Pop. (1920) 5,807 (91% Native White) ; ...

The Fifth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade (1218-1221) The Glow And Glamour Of The Crusades Disappear Save For The Pathetic Sunset Splendours Of St. Louis, As Dandolo Dies, And Gal Lant Villehardouin Drops His Pen. But Before St. Louis Sailed For Damietta There Intervened The Failure Of One Crusade, And The Secular And Diplomatic ...

The First Crusade
The First Crusade The First Crusade Falls Naturally Into Two Parts. One Of These May Be Called The Crusade Of The People : The Be Termed The Crusade Of The Princes. Of These The People's Crusade—prior In Order Of Time, If Only Secondary In Point Of Importance—may Nat Urally Be ...

The Fourth Crusade
The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) The History Of The Fourth Crusade Is A History Of The Predomi Nance Of The Lay Motive, Of The Attempt Of The Papacy To Escape From That Predominance, And To Establish Its Old Direction Of The Crusade, And Of The Complete Failure Of Its Attempt. Until ...

The Ghost Of The
The Ghost Of The Crusades The Loss Of Acre Failed To Stimulate The Powers Of Europe To Any New Effort. France, Always The Natural Home Of The Crusades, Was Too Fully Occupied, First By War With England And Then By A Struggle With The Papacy, To Turn Her Energies Towards ...

The Latin Kingdom Of
The Latin Kingdom Of Jerusalem The First Three Kings (1100-1143).—the Theocracy, How Ever, Was Not Destined To Be Established. Godfrey Had Died Without Direct Heirs. Dagobert Had At First Consented To The Dying God Frey's Wish That His Brother, Baldwin, In Far Edessa, Should Be His Successor ; But When ...

The Letter D Of
The Letter D Of The Alphabet. This Letter Has Retained The Fourth Place In The Alphabet From The Earliest Point At Which It Pears In History. It Corresponds To Semitic D (daleth) And Greek A (delta). The Rounded Form D Occurs In The Chalcidic Alphabet, From Which It Passed Into ...

The Organization Of The
The Organization Of The Kingdom Before We Turn To Describe The Second Crusade, Which The Loss Of Edessa Provoked, And To Trace The Fall Of The Kingdom, Which The Second Crusade Rather Hastened Than Hindered, We May Pause At This Point To Consider The Organization Of The Frankish Colonies In ...

The Second Crusade
The Second Crusade We Speak Of First, Second And Third Crusades, But, More Ex Actly, The Crusades Were One Continuous Process. Scarcely A Year Passed In Which Hew Bands Did Not Come To The Holy Land. We Have Already Noticed The Great If Disastrous Crusade Of I Ioo–oi And The ...

The Third Crusade
The Third Crusade (1189-1192) The 4o Years From 1 189 To 1229 Form A Period Of Incessant Crusading, Occupied By Crusades Of Every Kind. There Are The Third, Fifth And Sixth Crusades Against The "infidel" Mohammedans Encamped In The Holy Land; There Is The Albigensian Crusade Against The Heretic Cathars; ...

The Worlds Cotton Power
The World's Cotton Power Looms Statistics Of The Power Looms Of The World Are Neither So Com Plete Nor So Conclusive As Those For Spindles. They Are Incomplete Because, On The Weaving Side Of The World Textile Trade, There Is No Organization Responsible For The Collection Of Statistics Such As ...

The Worlds Cotton Spindles
The World's Cotton Spindles The Continuous Growth Of The Population Of The World And The Improvement Of The Standard Of Living In Most Countries Naturally Produces An Increase In The Demand For Clothing. To Some Degree It Is Met By The Improvement Of Old Or The Discovery Of New Types ...

The Worlds Cotton Supplies
The World's Cotton Supplies The World's Cotton Supplies Are So Widely Distributed And Vary So Greatly In Quality And Value That Some Principle Of Classifica Tion Is Necessary To Obtain A Comprehensive And Intelligible View Of The Supplies As A Whole. From A Manufacturing Point Of View The Most Convenient ...

Thomas Coutts
Coutts, Thomas English Banker And Founder Of The Banking House Of Coutts & Co., Was Born On Sept. 7, He Was The Fourth Son Of John Coutts Lord Provost Of Edinburgh In 1742, Who Carried On A Business In Corn And Negotiated Bills Of Exchange. Soon After The Death Of ...