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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Clock
Clock Manufacturing—mass Production 1. Section Of The Power-press Room In A Clock Factory 5. Final Inspection And Testing Of Alarm Clocks In Brook 2. Automatic Machines Which Turn Out Clock Parts Lyn, New York 3. Inspection Of Clock-movements In A Large-scale Prod Uc- 6. Racks Of Kitchen Clocks Undergoing Inspection ...

Clocks
Clocks. A Clock Consists Of A Train Of Wheels, Actuated By A Spring Or Weight Or Other Means, And Provided With An Oscillating Governing Device Which So Regulates The Speed As To Render It Uniform. Generally It Has A Mechanism By Which It Strikes The Hours On A Bell Or ...

Clogher
Clogher, A Small Village, Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Pop. (192 1) 197. It Gives Its Name To Dioceses Of The Church Of Ireland And The Roman Catholic Church, Though The Seat Of The Bishop Of The Latter Is At Monaghan. The Dedication Of The Protestant Cathedral To St. Macartin Is Of ...

Cloister
Cloister Originally Signified An Entire Monastery, But Is Now Restricted To Mean The Four-sided Enclosure, Surrounded With Covered Ambulatories, Usually Attached To Conventual And Cathe Dral Churches, And Sometimes To Colleges, Or, By A Still Further Limi Tation, To The Ambulatories Themselves. In Its Older Sense It Is Fre Quently ...

Clonakilty
Clonakilty, Urban District, Co. Cork, Ireland, At The Head Of Clonakilty Bay, 33 M. S.w. Of Cork By Rail. Pop. (1926) 2,771. There Are Megaliths In The Neighbourhood. Richard Boyle, First Earl Of Cork, Granted It A Charter In 1613 And It Was Pros Perous Until 1641, When It Was ...

Clones
Clones, An Urban District Of Co. Monaghan, Ireland, 64i M. S.w. By W. From Belfast By The Great Northern Of Ireland Railway. It Is At The Focus Of Ways From Dublin, Belfast, London Derry, Enniskillen And Cavan. Pop. (1926) 2,365. There Is A Rath (encampment) In The Vicinity. Clones Was ...

Clonmacnoise
Clonmacnoise, A Famous Early Christian Centre On The River Shannon, Offaly Co., Ireland, 9 M. South Of Athlone. An Abbey Founded 541 By St. Kieran Became Famous And Several Books Of Annals Were Compiled Here; Alcuin Came To Be Taught By Colcu At Clonmacnoise. The Book Of The Dun Cow ...

Clonmel
Clonmel (cluain Mealla, Or Vale Of Honey) , Municipal Borough And County Town Of Co. Tipperary, 112 M. S.w. From Dublin, Ireland, A Junction On The Great Southern Railway (water Ford, Limerick, Thurles), On Both Banks Of The River Suir And On Moore And Long Islands. Pop. (1926) 9,056. It ...

Cloquet
Cloquet, A City Of Carlton County, Minnesota, U.s.a., On The St. Louis River, 21m. W. By S. Of Duluth. It Is Served By The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, Duluth And North Eastern, Great Northern And Northern Pacific Railways. The Popu Lation Was 5,127 In 192o; In 193o, 6.782 ...

Close Prices
Close Prices. By Reason Of The Method In Which Busi Ness Is Conducted On The London Stock Exchange, Every Security— Bond, Stock Or Share—that Possesses A Free Market, Is Quoted At A Double Price. At The Higher Price, The Purchaser Can Expect To Buy ; At The Lower, He Is ...

Close
Close, A Closed Place (lat. Clausum, Shut). In English Law The Term Is Applied To Land, Enclosed Or Not, Held As Private Prop Erty, Or To Any Exclusive Interest In Land Sufficient To Maintain An Action For Trespass. In Scotland The Word Is Used Of The Entry, Including The Common ...

Closed Shop
Closed Shop. A Closed Shop, In America, Is A Shop In Which Trade-union Members Refuse To Allow Non-unionists To Obtain Permanent Employment. Shops In Which Non-unionists Are Permitted Are "open Shops." Since 1905 Trade-unionists Have Seriously Objected To The Use Of The Term "closed Shop." Their Contention Is That Its ...

Closure
Closure, The Parliamentary Term For The Closing Of Debate According To A Certain Rule, Even When Certain Members Are Anxious To Continue The Debate. (see Parliament : Procedure.) ...

Clotaire I
Clotaire I. (d. 561) Was One Of The F Our Sons Of Clovis. On The Death Of His Father In 5ii He Received As His Share Of The Kingdom The Town Of Soissons, Which He Made His Capital, The Cities Of Laon, Noyon, Cambrai And Maastricht, And The Lower Course ...

Clotaire Ii
Clotaire Ii. (d. 629) Was The Son Of Chilperic I. On The Assassination Of His Father In 584 He Was Still In His Cradle. He Was, However, Recognized As King, Thanks To The Devotion Of His Mother Fredegond And The Protection Of His Uncle Gontran, King Of Bur Gundy. It ...

Clotaire Iii
Clotaire Iii. (652-673) Was A Son Of King Clovis Ii. In 657 He Became The Nominal Ruler Of The Three Frankish Kingdoms, But Was Deprived Of Austrasia In 663, Retaining Neustria And Burgundy Until His Death. ...

Cloth Finishing
Cloth Finishing. In This Article, The Subject Of Finish Ing Is Treated Under The Two Headings (i) Cotton And (2) Wool. Reference Should Also Be Made To The Article Cotton And Cotton Industry, Section Vi., Subsection D. ...

Cloth
Cloth, Any Material Woven Of Wool Or Hair, Cotton, Flax Or Vegetable Fibre. In Commercial Usage, The Word Is Particularly Applied To A Fabric Made Of Wool. The Word Is Teutonic, Though It Does Not Appear In All The Branches Of The Language. It Appears In German As Kleid (kleidung, ...

Clothier
Clothier, A Manufacturer Of Cloth, Or A Dealer Who Sells Either The Cloth Or Made-up Clothing. In The United States The Word Formerly Applied Only To Those Who Dressed Or Fulled Cloth During The Process Of Manufacture, Hut Now It Is Used In The General Sense, As Above. ...

Clothing Manufacture
Clothing Manufacture. The Application Of The Sewing-machine To Tailoring Made The Production Of Ready-made Clothing Possible In Bulk. The Early Demand For Ready-made Cloth Ing May Be Traced To The Older Seaport Towns, Where Such Clothing Was Often Required At Short Notice By Persons Returning From Long Voyages. The Foundations ...

Cloud
Cloud, A Mass Of Condensed Vapour, Either Liquid Or Solid, Hanging In The Air At Some Height From The Earth (from The Same Root And Probably The Same Word, As "clod," Common To Teutonic Languages In Various Forms Meaning A Mass Or Lump; It Is First Applied In The More ...

Cloudberry
Cloudberry, Rubus Chamaemorus, A Low-growing Creep Ing Herbaceous Plant (family, Rosaceae) With Simple Obtusely Lobed Leaves And Solitary White Flowers, Resembling Those Of The Blackberry, But Larger—one Inch Across—and With Stamens And Pistils On Different Plants. The Orange-yellow Fruit Is About Half An Inch Long And Consists Of A Few ...

Clouet
Clouet, Francois (d. 1s72), French Miniature Painter. The Earliest Reference To Him Is The Document Dated Dec., 1s41 (see Clouet, Jean ), In Which The King Renounces For The Benefit Of The Artist His Father's Estate Which Had Escheated To The Crown As The Estate Of A Foreigner. In It ...

Clovelly
Clovelly, A Fishing Village Of Barnstaple Bay, Devonshire, England, I Im. W.s.w. Of Bideford. Pop. (1921) 634. It Is A Cluster Of Old-fashioned Cottages In A Unique Position On The Sides Of A Rocky Cleft In The North Coast ; Its Main Street Resembles A Staircase, Which Descends 400f T. ...

Clover
Clover, The English Name For Plants Belonging To The Genus Tri F Olium, So-called From The Leaf, Which Has Three Leaflets (tri Foliate). It Is A Member Of The Family Leguminosae, And Contains About 30o Species, Found Chiefly In North Temperate Regions, But Also, Like Other North Temperate Genera On ...

Cloves
Cloves, The Dried, Unexpanded Flower-buds Of Eugenia Aromatics, A Tree Belonging To The Family Myrtaceae. The Clove Tree Is A Beautiful Evergreen Which Grows To A Height Of 4o Ft., Having Large Oval Leaves And Crimson Flowers In Numerous Groups Of Terminal Clusters. The Flower-buds Are At First Of A ...

Clovis
Clovis, A City Of New Mexico, U.s.a., Near The Centre Of The Eastern Boundary Of The State ; The County Seat Of Curry County. It Is On Federal Highways 7o And 366, And Is Served By The Santa Fe Railroad. The Population Was 4,904 In 1920, And Was 8,027 In ...

Clown
Clown, A Rustic Or Boorish Person; In Pantomime, A Comic Character, Always Dressed In Baggy Costume, With Face Whitened And Eccentrically Lined With Black And Red Paint. The Character Probably Descends From Representations Of The Devil In Mediaeval Miracle-plays, Developed Through The Fools Or Jesters Of The Elizabethan Drama. The ...

Club Moss
Club-moss, The Common Name For Plants Of The Genus Lycopodium, And Often Extended To Cover All The Lycopodiales, Which Form One Of The Main Divisions Of The Pteridophyta (q.v.), A Group Which Also Includes The Ferns. Club-mosses Are Also Called Staghorn-mosses. • ...

Clubfoot
Clubfoot (talipes), The Name Given To Deformities Of The Foot, Some Of Which Are Congenital, Others Acquired—the Latter Being Chiefly Due To Infantile Paralysis. Talipes Equinus Is That Form In Which The Heel Does Not Touch The Ground, The Child Resting On The Toes. In Talipes Varus The Foot Is ...

Clubs And The Professions
Clubs And The Professions A Change Was By Now Coming Over The Institution Of The Club. With The Increase In Population And More Grandiose Ideas, It Was Found Necessary To Allocate Such Centres To Varied Tastes And Oc Cupations, And Thus Whereas Previously The Statesman And The Sol Dier, The ...

Clubs In The Eighteenth
Clubs In The Eighteenth Century With The Beginning Of The 18th Century There Was A Sudden And Large Increase Of Clubs In London. Passing Over The Notorious Calves' Head Club (q.v.) We May Note That A Number Of Clubs Arose Whose Doings Are Mentioned In The Tatler And The Specta ...

Clubs
Clubs. Although The Club As An Institution Was Known To The Greeks And Romans, To The Former As Lietaireia, To The Latter As Sodalitas, And Was, Indeed, Recognized In Nearly All The States Of The Ancient Civilized World, Its Organization And Aims Differed , Essentially From Those Of Modern Times. ...

Clue Or Clew
Clue Or Clew, The Thread Of Life, Which, According To The Fable, The Fates Spin For Every Man (o.e. Cluwe, A Ball Of Thread). The Figurative Meaning, A Piece Of Evidence Leading To Discovery, Is Derived From The Story Of Theseus, Who Was Guided Through The Labyrinth By The Ball ...

Cluj
Cluj (ger. Klausenburg; Hung. Koloszvar), A City Of Tran Sylvania, Rumania, Capital Of The Department Of Cluj, And Formerly Of The Principality Of Transylvania. Pop. (193o) 98,55o. The Racial Figures In 1923 Were: About 34,00o Rumanians, 40,000 Magyars, 20,000 Jews, And 16,000 Others. Cluj Lies Mainly On The Right Bank ...

Clump
Clump, A Lump, Group Or Cluster, E.g., Of Trees. A Clumsy Shoe Worn By German Peasants, Made From A Single Piece Of Wood; The Thick Extra Sole Added To Heavy Boots For Rough Wear. Shoemakers Speak Of Clumping A Boot When A New Sole Is Nailed, Not Sewn By Hand, ...

Clunes
Clunes, A Borough Of Talbot County, Victoria, Australia, 974 M. By Rail N.w. Of Melbourne. Pop. (1933) 1,182. It Is The Centre Of An Agricultural, Pastoral And Mining District, In Which Gold Was First Discovered In 185i. It Lies In A Healthy And Pictur Esque Situation At An Elevation Of ...

Cluny Or Clugny
Cluny Or Clugny, A Town Of East Central France, In The Department Of Saone-et-loire, On The Left Bank Of The Grosne, 14 M. N.w. Of Mâcon. Pop. (1931) 3,008. The Interest Of The Town Lies In Its Specimens Of Mediaeval Architecture, Which Include, Be Sides Its Celebrated Abbey, The Gothic ...

Clusium
Clusium (mod. Chiusi, Q.v.), An Ancient Town Of Italy, One Of The 12 Cities Of Etruria, On An Isolated Hill At The South End Of The Valley Of The Clanis (chiana). It First Appears In Roman History At The End Of The 7th Century B.c., When It Joined The Other ...

Clutch
Clutch, A Device By Means Of Which Connected Shafts M Other Mechanisms, Such As Engaging Pulleys, Gears And Other Rotat Ing Parts, May Be Disconnected At Will. A Clutch Is Frequently Required To Operate Many Times In The Course Of A Minute And, As In The Spindle Of The Automatic ...

Cluvier Cluwer Cluver
Cluwer (cluver, Cluvier, Cluverius), Philip (1580 1623 ), German Geographer And Historian, Was Born At Danzig. He Studied Law At Leyden, But Soon Turned His Attention To His Tory And Geography, Which Were Then Taught There By Joseph Scaliger. He Finally Settled In Holland, Where (after 1616) He Received A ...

Clyde
Clyde, The Principal River Of Lanarkshire, Scotland (welsh, Clwyd, "far Heard," "strong," The Glotta Of Tacitus), Also The Name Of The Estuary Which Forms The Largest Firth On The West Coast. ...

Clydebank
Clydebank, A Police And Municipal Burgh, Dumbar Tonshire, Scotland, On The Right Bank Of The Clyde, 6 M. From Glasgow, Served By The L.n.e.r. And By The L.m.s.r. Pop. 46,963. In 1875 The District Was Almost Purely Rural, But Since That Date Many Industries Have Been Established. Dalmuir, Kilbowie And ...

Cnidus
Cnidus, An Ancient City Of Caria In Asia Minor, Situated At The Extremity Of The Long Peninsula That Forms The Southern Side Of The Sinus Ceramicus Or Gulf Of Cos. It Was Built Partly On The Mainland And Partly On The Island Of Triopion Or Cape Krio, Which Anciently Communicated ...

Coach
Coach, A Large Roofed Or Enclosed Carriage For Passengers, Which Originated In Hungary At A Place Named Kocs, From Which The Name Itself Is Derived Through The French Coche. As A General Term, It Is Used (as In "coach-building") For All Carriages, And Also In Combination With Qualifying Attributes For ...

Coaching
Coaching. The Loth Century Witnessed In Its First Quarter The Passing Of A Style Of Conveyance Which Was At One Time Uni Versal, And Has Inspired The Artist, The Poet And The Author To Work That Will Remain Long After The Last Coach Has Ceased To Be Seen On The ...

Coahuila
Coahuila, A Northern Frontier State Of Mexico, Bounded N. And N.e. By Texas, U.s.a., E. By Nuevo Leon, S. By San Luis Potosi And Zacatecas, And W. By Durango And Chihuahua. Area, 58,067 Sq.m. The Population In 1930 Was 433,00o. Its Surface Is A Roughly Broken Plateau, Traversed By Several ...

Coal And Coal Mining
Coal And Coal Mining. By Coal Is Comprehended All The Fossil Fuels Contained In The Earth's Crust. Being An Amor Phous Substance Of Variable Composition It Cannot Be As Strictly Defined As Can A Crystallized Or Definite Mineral. Coal, Strictly Speaking, Is Not A Mineral But A Rock, And, Further, ...

Coal Control Methods In
Coal: Control Methods In The World War In Times Of War And National Emergency, When Industry Is Par Alysed For Lack Of Motive Power, The Overwhelming Importance Of Coal Is Emphasized. Coal Is Not Only The Prime Factor In The Manu Facture Of Nearly All War Materials, And In The ...

Coal Electrical Power Uses
Coal; Electrical Power Uses; Coal Carbonization The Use To Which A Coal Can Be Most Profitably Put Depends On Two Factors, Its Chemical Composition And Its Physical Character. A Coal May Have A High Fixed Carbon Content, And As Such May Be Capable Of Giving Out Great Heat, But Owing ...

Coal Industry United States
Coal Industry: United States According To Recent Estimates, Those Of The International Geological Congress, The United States Has About 52% Of The Coal Supply Of The World, But In View Of The Fact That The Geological Resources Are Probably Almost As Closely Estimated In The United States As In Any ...

Coal Tar
Coal Tar, The Viscous, Oily Fraction Of The Liquid Distillates Obtained In The Manufacture Of Coal-gas Or Of Coke By The Destruc Tive Distillation (see Carbonization) Of Bituminous Coal At 90o I200° C. Many Factors Affect Both The Yield And Composition Of The Tar, Particularly The Class Of Coal Carbonized, ...

Coal
Coal). Of The Quantity Of "mineral" Raised At The Collieries Of Great Britain, It Is Estimated That 2.9% Is Refuse, But From This Refuse 4.7% Is Recovered In The Form Of Coal. The Figures For The Year 1917 Were As Follows:— Tons Gross Output . . Refuse . . . ...

Coalbrookdale
Coalbrookdale, A Village And Ecclesiastical District Of Shropshire, England, On The G.w.r., 5 M. S. Of Wellington. Pop. 1,40o. The "dale" Is The Valley Of A Stream Rising Near The Wrekin And Following South-east For About 8 M. To The Severn. Its Ironworks, Founded In 1709 By Abraham Darby With ...

Coaldale
Coaldale, An Anthracite-mining Borough Of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., 45m. S. By W. Of Scranton. It Is On Federal Highway 209, And Is Served By The Central Railroad Of New Jersey And The Lehigh And New England Railroad. The Population In 1930 Was 6,921, Of Whom 1,703 Were Foreign-born White. ...

Coalition
Coalition, A Combination Of Bodies Or Parts Into One Body Or Whole. (lat. Coalitio, From Coalescere, To Grow Together.) The Word Is Used, Especially In A Political Sense, Of An Alliance Or Tem Porary Union For Joint Action Of Various Powers Or States, Such As The Coalition Of The European ...

Coalville
Coalville, A Town In North-west Leicestershire, England, 112 M. N.n.w. From London. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 21,886. It Is Served By The L.m.s.r. This Is A Town Of Modern Growth, A Centre Of The Coal-mining District Of North Leicester Shire. There Are Also Iron Foundries And Brick-works. A Mile ...

Coast Defence
Coast Defence. The Term Coast Defence Is Sometimes Liable To Be Confused With What Is Really Local Defence. It Is Now Accepted That It Is Not Possible To Defend The Whole Length Of A Coast Line Of Even A Comparatively Small Country Like Britain From Spasmodic Assaults By Sea. It ...

Coast Erosion And Protection
Coast Erosion And Protection There Is A Difference Of Opinion About The Value Of Much Of The Works For Coast Protection, And Some Consider That Money Expended Thereon Does Not Give An Adequate Return. Even In Holland, Whose Existence Depends On The Maintenance Of Its Sea Walls And Defences, Authorities ...

Coast Protection And Land
Coast Protection And Land Reclama Tion. The Boundaries Between Sea And Land Are Perennially Changing. In Many Sheltered Bays And Estuaries The Sea Is Reced Ing, While Along Other Portions Of The Sea Coast It Is Continuously Encroaching. The Same Causes Operate To Produce Both Results: The Rivers Carry Down ...

Coast
Coast, The Edge Of The Land In Contact With The Sea. The Term (from Lat. Costa, A Rib, Side) Is Sometimes Applied To The Bank Of A Lake Or Wide River, And Sometimes To A Coastal Zone (cf. Gold Coast, Coromandel Coast). If The Coast-line Runs Parallel To A Mountain ...

Coastguard
Coastguard, A Force Usually Naval In Character, Main Tained In Some Countries For The Suppression Of Smuggling Or Af Fording Assistance To Vessels In Distress Or Wrecked And For Other Duties Incidental To A Seaboard, E.g., Signalling, Etc. To Cope With The Intensive Smuggling Which Followed On The Conclusion Of ...

Coasting
Coasting, Usually Called Tobogganing (q.v.) In Europe, The Sport Of Sliding Down Snow Or Ice-covered Hills Or Artificial Inclines Upon Hand-sleds, Or Sledges, Provided With Runners Shod With Iron Or Steel. It Is Uncertain Whether The First American Sleds Were Copied From The Indian Toboggans, But No Sled Without Runners ...

Coatbridge
Coatbridge, Municipal Burgh, Having The Privileges Of A Royal Burgh, Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop. 43,056. It Is Situated On The Monkland Canal, 8 M. E. Of Glasgow, With Stations On The L.m.s.r. And L.n.e.r. Until About 1825 It Was Only A Village, But Since Then Coal And Iron Mining Have Been ...

Coatesville
Coatesville, A City Of Chester County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The West Branch Of Brandywine Creek, 38m. W. Of Philadelphia. The Lincoln Highway Is Its Main Street, And It Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The Reading Railways. The Popu Lation In 1920 Was 14,515, And In 1930 Was 14,582 By ...

Cob
Cob, Something Round, Stout, Tufted Or Like A Head (possibly From Ger. Kopf, Head) . The Principal Uses Of "cob" Are For A Stocky, Strongly-built Horse, From 13 To 14 Hands High, A Small Round Loaf, A Round Lump Of Coal, In Which Sense "cobble" Is Also Used, The Central ...

Cobalt
Cobalt, A Mining Town On Cobalt Lake, Timiskaming, Northern Ontario, Canada, 330m. N. Of Toronto, On The Temis Kaming And Northern Ontario Railways. Unknown Till 1903, It Is Now The Centre Of One Of The Richest Silver Districts In The World. The Region Also Produces Cobalt, Arsenic And Nickel In ...

Cobaltite
Cobaltite, A Mineral With The Composition Coass, Cobalt Sulpharsenide. It Is Found As Granular To Compact Masses, And Frequently As Beautifully Developed Crystals, Which Have The Same Symmetry As The Isomorphous Mineral Pyrite, Being Cubic With Parallel Hemihedrism. The Usual Form Is A Pentagonal-dodecahe Dron With Faces Of The Cube ...

Cobalt_2
Cobalt, A Metallic Chemical Element Closely Allied To Iron And Nickel (symbol Co, Atomic Number 27, Atomic Weight Though The Atomic Weight Of Cobalt Is Slightly Greater Than That Of Nickel, The Properties Of Cobalt Indicate It Should Precede Nickel In The Periodic Classification, A Conclusion Confirmed By The Fact ...

Coban
Coban, A City Of Guatemala, Central America, Capital Of The Department Of Alta Verapaz And A Centre Of The Coffee Trade. Population, About 23,00o. Coban Is O5m. N. Of Guatemala City, Although No Railway Or Motor Highway Joins The Two. It Is Reached By Launch From Puerto Barrios Through Lake ...

Cobham
Cobham, A Village Of Kent, England, 4m. W. Of Rochester. Pop. Of Parish (1921) 955. The Church (early English And Later Restored) Is Rich In Ancient Brasses (132o-1529), Commemorating Thirteen Brooke And Cobham Families, And For Its Fine Oak Stalls. Cobham College, Containing 20 Almshouses, After The Dissolution Took The ...

Cobia Or
Cobia Or (rachycentron Canadus), A Very Voracious Game-fish, Cosmopolitan In Warm Seas, The Only Genus Of The Family Rachycentridae Which, According To G. A. Boulenger, Is Allied With The Mackerel-like Fishes. The Fish Is Slender And Somewhat Pike-like, Reaching A Length Of Five Feet. The Head Is Flattened And The ...

Coble
Coble, A Flat-bottomed Fishing-boat, With Deep-lying Rud Der And Lug-sail, Used Off The North-east Coast Of England. The Word Is Probably Of Celtic Origin, And Connected With The Root Ceu Or Coo, Hollow ; Cf. Welsh Ceubol, A Ferry-boat. ...

Coblenz Or Koblenz
Coblenz Or Koblenz, A City And Fortress Of Germany, Capital Of The Prussian Rhine Province, 57 M. S.e. From Cologne By Rail, Situated On The Left Bank Of The Rhine At Its Confluence With The Moselle, Whence Its Ancient Name Confluentes, Of Which Coblenz Is A Corruption. Pop. (1933) 58,322. ...

Cobourg
Cobourg, The Capital Of Northumberland County, Ontario, Canada, On Lake Ontario And The Canadian National And Canadian Pacific Railways, Tom. E.n.e. Of Toronto. Pop. 5,834. It Has A Large, Safe Harbour, And Steamboat Communication With St. Lawrence And Lake Ontario Ports, And Is Connected By Ferry With Charlotte, New York. ...

Cobra
Cobra, The Name Applied To The Poisonous Colubrine Snakes Of The Genera Naja And Sepedon Which Have The Power Of Dilat Ing The Neck Laterally To Form A Broad Disc Or "hood." The Dilata Tion Is Brought About By The Raising And Pushing Forward Of The Long Anterior Ribs, The ...

Coburg
Coburg, A Town In Germany, In The Land Of Bavaria, On The Left Bank Of The Itz, 4o M. S.s.e. Of Gotha. Pop. ) 25,79o. Coburg, First Mentioned In A Record Of 1207, Was Of Con Siderable Importance In The R 5th And I6th Centuries, And Owed Its Existence To ...

Coca Or Cuca
Coca Or Cuca (erythroxylon Coca), A Plant Of The Family Erythroxylaceae, The Leaves Of Which Are Used As A Stimulant In Western South America. It Resembles A Blackthorn Bush, And Grows To A Height Of 8 Feet. The Branches Are Straight And The Lively Green Leaves Are Thin, Opaque, Oval, ...

Cocaine
Cocaine, One Of A Series Of "cocaines," Alkaloids (q.v.) Occurring In The Leaves Of Coca (q.v.), A Shrub Indigenous To Bolivia And Peru, But Now Chiefly Produced By Cultivation In Java. Cocaine Crystallizes From Alcohol In Colourless Prisms, Melting At 98° C; It Has A Specific Rotation And It Is ...

Cocanada
Cocanada, A Town Of British India, Administrative Head Quarters Of The Godavari District Of Madras, Situated On The Coast In The Extreme North Of The Godavari Delta, About 315 M. N. Of Madras. Pop. (1931) 65,952. Cocanada Is The Fourth Port Of Madras. The Roadstead In Coringa Bay Is Protected ...

Cocceius
Cocceius, The Latinized Name Of Johannes Koch (1603 1669) , Dutch Theologian, Who Was Born At Bremen, On Aug. 9, 1603. After Studying At Hamburg And Franeker, Where Sixtinus Amama Was One Of His Teachers, He Taught At Bremen And At Franeker, And In 1650 Succeeded Fr. Spanheim The Elder ...

Coccidia
Coccidia, Parasitic Single-celled Animals (protozoa) Char Acterized Chiefly By Their Manner Of Reproduction. The Individuals Developed From The Spores (sporozoites) Are Able To Repro Duce Asexually, As Well As Sexually. For Further Particulars See Protozoa. ...

Cocculus Indicus
Cocculus Indicus, The Commercial Name For The Dried Fruits Of Anamirta Cocculus (family Menispermaceae), A Large Climbing Shrub, Native To India. It Contains A Bitter Poisonous Principle, Picrotoxin, Used In Small Doses To Control The Night Sweats Of Phthisis. ...

Cochabamba
Cochabamba, A Central Department Of Bolivia, Occupy Ing A Series Of Fertile Valleys On The Eastern Slope Of The Great Bolivian Plateau, Bounded N. By The Department Of El Beni, E. By Santa Cruz, S. By Chuquisaca And Potosi, And W. By Potosi, Oruro And La Paz. Area, 25,288 Sq.m.; ...

Cochabamba_2
Cochabamba, A City Of Bolivia, Capital Of The Department Of The Same Name And Of The Province Of Cercado, Situated On The Rocha, A Small Tributary Of The Guapay River. Pop. (1929) Esti Mated 34,281, Mostly Indians And Mestizos. The City Stands In A Broad Valley Of The Bolivian Plateau, ...

Cochem
Cochem, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Rhine Prov Ince On The Moselle, And 3o M. S.w. Of Coblenz By Rail. Pop. 5,459. It Is Situated At The Foot Of A Hill With A Feudal Castle Dating From 1051. Trade Is In Wines. ...

Cochin China
Cochin-china, The Six Southern Provinces Of The Empire Of Annam Annexed By France (1862-67), Bounded West By The Gulf Of Siam, North-west And North By Cambodia, East By Annam And South-east By The China Sea; The Land Frontiers Are Mostly Artificial; The Area Is 22,000 Sq. Miles. The Population (i ...

Cochin
Cochin, A Feudatory State Of Southern India, In Political Sub Ordination To Madras, With An Area Of 1,418 Square Miles. It Is Bounded On The North By British Malabar, On The East By British Malabar, Coimbatore And Travancore, On The South By Travan Core, And On The West By British ...

Cochineal
Cochineal, A Natural Dye-stuff Used For The Production Of Scarlet, Crimson, Orange And Other Tints, And For The Prepara Tion Of Lake And Carmine. It Consists Of The Females Of Dacty Lopius Coccus, An Insect Of The Family Coccidae Of The Order Hemiptera, Which Feeds Upon Various Species Of Cactaceae, ...

Cochin_2
Cochin, A Town In British India, In The District Of Malabar, Madras. Pop. (1931) 22,818. The Town Lies At The Northern Extremity Of A Strip Of Land About 12 M. In Length, But In Few Places More Than A Mile In Breadth, Which Is Nearly Isolated By Inlets Of The ...

Cochlaus
Cochlaus (dobneck), Johann German Humanist And Controversialist, Was Born At Wendelstein (near Nuremberg), Whence The Punning Surname Cochlaus (spiral). In 1507 He Graduated At Cologne And Published Under The Name Of Wendelstein His First Piece, In Musicam Exhortatorium. He Then Became A Schoolmaster At Nuremberg. In 1515 He Was At ...

Cock Lane Ghost
Cock Lane Ghost, A Supposed Apparition, The Vagaries Of Which Attracted Extraordinary Public Attention In London Dur Ing 1762. At A House In Cock Lane, Smithfield, Tenanted By One Parsons, Knockings And Other Noises Were Said To Occur At Night Varied By The Appearance Of A Luminous Figure, Alleged To ...

Cock Of The Rock
Cock-of-the-rock, Birds Of The Genus Rupicola (subfamily Rupicolinae) Of The Cotingas (allied To The Mana Kins, Q.v.), Found In The Amazon Valley. They Are About The Size Of A Pigeon, With Orange-coloured Plumage, A Pronounced Crest And Orange-red Flesh, And Build Their Nests On Rock. The Males Hold Elaborate "dancing ...

Cockade
Cockade, A Knot Of Ribbons Or A Rosette Worn As A Badge, Particularly In Modern Usage As Part Of The Livery Of Servants. The Cockade Was At First The Button And Loop Or Clasp Which "cocked" Up The Side Of An Ordinary Slouch Hat. The Word First Appears In This ...

Cockatoo
Cockatoo (cacatuidae), A Group Of Parrots Confined To The Australian Region And Characterized By A Crest Of Feathers On The Head ; This Can Be Raised At Will. They Live In Flocks In Woods, Feeding On Fruit, Seeds And Insects. The Note Is Harsh And Their Powers Of Vocal Imitation ...

Cockatrice
Cockatrice, A Fabulous Monster, The Existence Of Which Was Firmly Believed In Throughout Ancient And Mediaeval Times. Produced From A Cock's Egg Hatched By A Serpent, It Was Believed To Possess The Most Deadly Powers, Plants Withering At Its Touch, And Men And Animals Dying, Poisoned, By Its Look. It ...

Cockburn
Cockburn (ko'burn), Sir Alexander James Edmund, Loth Bart. (1802-188o), Lord Chief Justice Of Eng Land, Born Dec. 24, 1802, Of Ancient Scottish Stock, The Son Of Alexander, Fourth Son Of Sir James Cockburn, 6th Baronet. His Father Was British Envoy Extraordinary And Minister Plenipotenti Ary To The State Of Colombia, ...

Cockchafer
Cockchafer (melolotha Vulgaris), A Common European Beetle Whose Larva Is Destructive To The Roots Of Crops. The White Grub Spends Several Years In The Soil Before Emerging As A Large Beetle Which Feeds On The Leaves Of Trees, And May Often Be Seen Flying In Large Numbers At Dusk. (see ...

Cockermouth
Cockermouth, A Small Town Of Cumberland, England, 32 M. S.w. Of Carlisle, By The L.m.s.r. Pop. Of Urban District It Is Situated At The Confluence Of The Derwent And Cocker At A Focus Of Ways Among The Lower Western Hills Of The Lake District. Settlement In The Neighbourhood Goes Back ...

Cockle
Cockle, A Bivalved Marine Mollusc Of The Genus Cardium, Allied To The Oyster And Placed In The Class Lamellibranchia. About 200 Living Species Of Cockles Are Known And Over 33o Fossil Forms Have Been Described. The Common Or Edible Cockle (cardium Edule) Is The Best-known Example And Is Of Some ...