Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-4-part-2-brain-casting >> Calendar to Camel Corps

Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

Loading


Calendar
Calendar, So Called From The Roman Calends Or Kalends, A Method Of Distributing Time Into Certain Periods Adapted To The Purposes Of Civil Life, As Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years, Etc. The Solar Day Is Distinguished By The Daily Revolution Of The Earth And The Alternation Of Light And Darkness. ...

Calender
Calender. A Machine Consisting Of Two Or More Rollers Or Cylinders In Close Contact With Each Other, And Often Heated, Through Which Are Passed Cotton, Calico And Other Fabrics, For The Purpose Of Having A Finished Smooth Surface Given To Them; The Process Flattens The Fibres, Removes Inequalities, And Also ...

Cales
Cales (mod. Calvi), An Ancient City Of Campania, Be Longing Originally To The Aurunci, On The Via Latina, 8m. N.n.w. Of Casilinum. It Was Taken By The Romans In 335 B.c., And Was For A Long Time The Centre Of The Roman Dominion In Campania. It Was An Important Base ...

Calexico
Calexico, A City Of Imperial County (calif.), U.s.a., On The International Border, Opposite The Mexican City Mexicali; A Port Of Entry, And The Gateway To The Mexican Imperial Valley. It Is Served By The Southern Pacific Railway Lines. The Region Pro Duces Cotton, Fruit And Live Stock, And The City ...

Calf I
Calf. (i) The Young Of The Bovidae, And Particularly Of The Domestic Cow, Also Of The Elephant And Of Marine Mammals, As The Whale And Seal. The Word Is Applied To A Small Island Close To A Larger One, Like A Calf By Its Mother's Side, As In "calf Of ...

Calgary
Calgary, A City Of The Province Of Alberta, Canada, At The Junction Of The Bow And Elbow Rivers. Lat. 4 N.; Long. 15' W. Pop. (1901) 4,091; (1931) 83,761. It Is A Centre Of The Large Wheat-growing And Stock-raising Region Of North-western Canada, And An Important Railway Junction On ...

Cali
Cali, An Inland Town, Capital Of The Department Of Valle, Colombia, South America, About 18om. S.w. Of Bogota And 5om. S.e. Of The Port Of Buenaventura, On The Rio Cali, A Small Branch Of The Cauca. Pop. (1928) Cali Stands 3,327ft. Above Sea-level On The Western Side Of The Cauca ...

Calibration
Calibration, A Term Primarily Signifying The Determina Tion Of The "calibre," Or Bore Of A Gun. The Word Calibre Was Introduced Through The French From The Italian Calibro, Together With Other Terms Of Gunnery And Warfare, About The 16th Century. The Origin Of The Italian Equivalent Appears To Be Uncertain. ...

Calibre
Calibre. The Diameter Of The Bore Of A Gun, Not Counting The Depth Of The Rifled Grooves. ...

Calico Printing
Calico Printing. A Means Of Producing Decorative Effects In The Form Of Patterns Or Designs On Cotton And Other Fabrics. The Application Of This Art Is Not Limited To The Material Generally Known As Calico, For Almost All Varieties Of Cotton Fabric May Be Printed. The Effects Produced Are Generally ...

Calico
Calico. A Trade Term To Describe The Simplest Variety Of Plain Cotton Fabrics Embodying What Is Variously Known Tech Nically As The "plain," "calico" And "tabby" Weave. This Simple Fabric Structure Is Evolved By The Most Elementary Plan Of Inter Weaving Two Distinct Series Of Threads, Constituting The Warp And ...

Calicut
Calicut, City, British India, Headquarters Of The Malabar District Of Madras; On The Coast, 6m. N. Of Beypore. Pop. (1931) 99,273. The Weaving Of Cotton, For Which The Place Was At One Time So Famous That Its Name Became Identified With Its Calico, Is No Longer Of Any Importance. About ...

California Lilac
California Lilac (ceanothus Thyrsiflorus), A Name Given To A Handsome North American Tree Of The Buckthorn Family (rhamnaceae), Called Also Blue Blossom And Blue Myrtle. It Grows On Canyon Sides From Monterey Northward To Oregon And Is Especially Abundant In The Redwood Belt. While Usually A Shrub, 3 Ft. To ...

California Poppy
California Poppy (eschscholtzia Californica), A Per Ennial Herb Of The Poppy Family (papaveraceae), Abundant In The Valleys And Foothills West Of The Sierra Nevada. It Has Erect Or Diffusely Spreading Stems 1 Ft. To 2 Ft. Long, Bearing Finely Dissected Leaves And Large Pale Yellow To Deep Golden-orange Flowers, 4 ...

California
California, Popularly Known As The "golden State," Is One Of The Pacific Coast Group Of The United States Of America. Physically It Is One Of The Most Remarkable, Economically One Of The Most Independent, And In History And Social Life One Of The Most Interesting Of The Union. It Is ...

Caligula Gaius Caesar
Caligula (gaius Caesar) (a.n. 12-41), Roman Emperor 37-41, Youngest Son Of Germanicus And Agrippina The Elder, Was Born On Aug. 31, A.d. 12. He Grew Up In His Father's Camp Among The Soldiers, And Was Called Caligula From The Caligae, Or Soldiers' Boots Which He Used To Wear. He Accompanied ...

Calinga
Calinga, One Of The Nine Kingdoms Of Southern India In Ancient Times. Its Exact Limits Varied, But Included The Eastern Madras Coast From Pulicat To Chicacole, Running Inland From The Bay Of Bengal To The Eastern Ghats. The Name At One Time Had A Wider And Vaguer Meaning, Comprehending Orissa, ...

Calipash
Calipash And Calipee, The Gelatinous Substances In The Upper And Lower Shells, Respectively, Of The Turtle, The Calipash Being Of A Dull Greenish And The Calipee Of A Light Yellow Colour (possibly Connected With Carapace, The Upper Shell Of A Turtle). Both Are Highly Esteemed By Epicures. ...

Caliph
Caliph, A Title Of The Head Of The Muslim Community, First Applied To Abu Bakr, As Successor Of Muhammad (arab, Kliali F Ah Lit. "successor," "viceregent") . For Other Meanings Of The Word, See T. W. Arnold, The Caliphate (1924), Appendix C. (see Also ...

Caliphate
Caliphate. The History Of The Muhammadan Rulers In The East Who Bore The Title Of Caliph (q.v.) Falls Naturally Into Three Main Divisions :(a) The First F Our Caliphs, The Immediate Succes Sors Of Muhammad; (b) The Umayyad Caliphs; (c) The Abbasid Caliphs. To These Three Groups The Present Article ...

Caliver
Caliver, A Firearm Used In The 16th Century. The Word Is An English Corruption Of "calibre," And Arises From The "arquebus Of Calibre," That Is, Of Standard Bore, Which Replaced The Older Arquebus. "caliver," Therefore, Is Practically Synonymous With "arquebus." The Heavier Musket, Fired From A Rest, Replaced The Caliver ...

Calixtus I
Calixtus I., Pope From 2 I 7 To 222, Was Little Known Before The Discovery Of The Book Of The Philosophumena. From This Work Which Is In Part A Pamphlet Directed Against Him, We Learn That Calixtus Was Originally A Slave And Engaged In Banking. Falling On Evil Times, He ...

Calixtus Ii
Calixtus Ii. (d. 1124), Pope From 1119 To 1124, Was Guido, A Member Of A Noble Burgundian Family, Who Became Archbishop Of Vienne About 1088, And Belonged To The Party Which Favoured Reform In The Church. In Feb. 1119 He Was Chosen Pope At Cluny, Succeeding Gelasius Ii., And In ...

Calixtus Iii
Calixtus Iii. (c. 1378-1458), Pope From 1455 To 1458, Was A Spaniard Named Alphonso De Borgia, Or Borja. A Native Of Xativa, He Gained A Great Reputation As A Jurist, Becoming Profes Sor At Lerida; In 1429 He Was Made Bishop Of Valencia, And In A Cardinal, Owing His Promotion ...

Call Money
Call Money. A London Money-market Term Used To Describe Short-term Loans Advanced To Bill-brokers By Banks On Security. Another Name For Such Advances Is "day-to-day Money," Or Even "over-night Money." Such Advances Are Essential To The Bill-broker, Who Requires Prompt Loans To Deal With Bills Offering. Call Money Is Advanced ...

Call
Call. A Term Used On The English And American Stock Ex Changes For A Contract By Which, In Consideration Of A Certain Sum, An "option" Is Given By The Person Making Or Signing The Agree Ment To Another Named Therein Or His Order Or To Bearer, To "call" For A ...

Calla
Calla, In Botany, A Genus Of The Arum Family (araceae), Comprising Only One Species (c. Palustris), Known As Arum Lily, Water Arum Or Wild Calla, Found Widely In Bogs In Cool North Tem Perate And Subarctic Regions. It Is A Handsome Plant, With Heart Shaped Leaves, Showy White Flowering Spathes ...

Callable
Callable, A Term Relating To Securities, Meaning That The Issuer Retains The Right To Call In, Repay, Or Redeem Them Under Specified Conditions. Callable Or Redeemable Stock Is That Upon Which The Issuing Company Has Retained The Option, Under The Conditions And Upon The Terms Specified In Its Certificate Of ...

Callander Pembroke Road
Callander -pembroke Road, A Highway Begin Ning At Pembroke On The Ottawa River And Ending At Lake Nipis Sing In The Province Of Ontario, Canada. It Forms Part Of The Trans-canada Highway And Is About 14om. In Length, Improved Throughout. It Passes Through Algonquin Provincial Park, Which Is Notable As ...

Callander
Callander, Police Burgh And Parish, Perthshire, Scot Land, 16 M. North-west Of Stirling By The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931), 1,572. Situated On The North Bank Of The Teith, Here Crossed By A Three-arched Bridge, And Sheltered By A Ridge Of Wooded Hills, It Is In Repute As A Health Resort, And ...

Callao
Callao, A City, Chief Port And Constitutional Province Of Peru. Pop. (1927), 53,258, About 50,000 Of Whom Were In The City. The Province (area 141 Sq.m.), A Low Peninsula South Of The Rimac River, Includes The City And Its Suburbs, Bellavista To The East, With A Large Anglo-american Colony, La ...

Callias
Callias, Tyrant Of Chalcis In Euboea, Wished, With The Assistance Of Philip Of Macedon, To Subdue The Whole Island. But, Finding Philip Unwilling To Help Him, He Applied To The Athenians, Though He Had Previously Fought Against Them. They Were Per Suaded By Demosthenes To Make An Alliance With Callias, ...

Callias_2
Callias And Hipponicus, Two Names Borne Alternately By The Heads Of A Wealthy Athenian Family. During The 5th And 4th Centuries B.c. The Office Of Daduchus Or Torch-bearer At The Eleusinian Mysteries Was The Hereditary Privilege Of The Family. The Following Members Deserve Mention. ...

Callicratidas
Callicratidas, Spartan Admiral, Succeeded Lysander As Admiral Of The Lacedaemonian Fleet In 406 B.c. He Found At Once That His Predecessor Had Made His Position As Difficult As Possible, By Setting His Subordinates Against Him And Returning To Cyrus All The Supplies That He Held. He Won Over The Captains ...

Callicula
Callicula, A Historic Mountain Of Campania, Italy, Some 4m. N.e. Of Teanum (mod. Teano) (q.v.). After The Victory Of Trasimenus (q.v.) And The Roman Failure To Block Hannibal's (q.v.) March Into Picenum At The Pass Of Plestia, The Carthaginian Army Remained At Rest In Picenum For Some Time, And Then ...

Calligraphy
Calligraphy Is The Art Of Fine Writing. Writing Is A Means Of Communication By Agreed Signs; If These Signs Or Sym Bols Are Painted Or Engraved On Wood Or Stone We Have That Extension And Application Of Writing Known As Lettering, I.e., A Large Script Generally Formed With Mechanical Aids ...

Callimachus
Callimachus, An Athenian Sculptor Of The Second Half Of The 5th Century B.c. Ancient Critics Associate Him With Calamis. He Is Given Credit For Two Inventions, The Corinthian Column And The Running Borer For Drilling Marble. He Made A Golden Lamp For The Erechtheum (pans. I. Xxvi., 2). His "dancing ...

Callimachus_2
Callimachus, Greek Poet And Grammarian, A Native Of Cyrene, Flourished About B.c. He Opened A School In The Suburbs Of Alexandria, And Some Of The Most Distinguished Grammarians And Poets Were His Pupils. He Was Subsequently Appointed By Ptolemy Philadelphus Chief Librarian Of The Alex Andrian Library, Which Office He ...

Callinus
Callinus Of Ephesus, The Oldest Of The Greek Elegiac Poets And The Creator Of The Political And Warlike Elegy. He Is Supposed To Have Flourished Between The Invasion Of Asia Minor By The Cimmerii And Their Expulsion By Alyattes (63o-56o B.c.). During His Lifetime His Own Countrymen Were Also Engaged ...

Calliope
Calliope, The Chief Of The Muses (q.v.), Occasionally In Late Authors The Muse Of Epic Poetry (gr., "beautiful Voice"). See Hesiod, Theog., 79; Anth. Pal., Ix. 504, I. ...

Callirrhoe
Callirrhoe, In Greek Legend, Second Daughter Of The River-god Achelous And Wife Of Alcmaeon (q.v.). On His Death, She Prayed That Her Two Young Sons Might Grow To Manhood At Once And Avenge Their Father. This Prayer Was Granted; And Her Sons, Amphoterus And Acarnan, Slew Phegeus, The Murderer Of ...

Callisthenes
Callisthenes (c. 36o-328 B.c.), Of Olynthus, Greek His Torian, A Relative And Pupil Of Aristotle, Through Whose Recom Mendation He Was Appointed To Attend Alexander The Great In His Asiatic Expedition. He Censured Alexander's Adoption Of Oriental Customs; This Offended The King, And He Was Accused Of Being Privy To ...

Callisto
Callisto, In Greek Mythology, An Arcadian Nymph, Daugh Ter Of Lycaon And Companion Of Artemis; Probably A Local Form Of Artemis Kalliste (fairest). She Bore Zeus A Son, Areas, The Ancestor Of The Arcadians, And Was Transformed Into A Bear By Hera, Zeus, Or Artemis. Areas, When Hunting, Encountered The ...

Callistratus
Callistratus, An Athenian Poet, Only Known As The Author Of A Hymn In Honour Of Harmodius (q.v.) And Aristogeiton. This Ode, Which Is To Be Found In Athenaeus (p. 695), Has Been Beautifully Translated By Thomas Moore. ...

Callistratus_2
Callistratus Of Aphidnae, Athenian Orator And General In The 4th Century B.c. For Many Years, As Prostates, He Supported Spartan Interests At Athens. On Account Of The Refusal Of The Thebans To Surrender Oropus, Which On His Advice They Had Been Allowed To Occupy Temporarily, Callistratus, Despite His Magnifi Cent ...

Callistratus_3
Callistratus, Alexandrian Grammarian, Flourished At The Beginning Of The 2nd Century B.c. He Was One Of The Pupils Of Aristophanes Of Byzantium. Callistratus Wrote Commentaries On Greek Poets, A Few Fragments Of Which Have Been Preserved In The Scholia And In Athenaeus. He Was Also The Author Of A Miscella ...

Callistratus_4
Callistratus, Greek Sophist And Rhetorician, Probably Flourished In The 3rd Century. He Wrote Ekphraseis, Descriptions Of 14 Works Of Art In Stone Or Brass By Distinguished Artists. This Little Work Is Usually Edited With The Eikones Of Philostratus. Bibliography. See F. Jacobs, Animadversiones Criticae In Cal Listrati Statuas (1797) ; ...

Calms
Calms, A Seaport And Manufacturing Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Pas-de-calais, '22 M. E.s.e. Of Dover, And 185 M. N. Of Paris By The Northern Railway. Pop. 59,382. The Old Town Stands On An Island Hemmed In By The Canal And The Harbour Basins Which Divide It ...

Calne
Calne (kawn), A Market Town And Municipal Borough In The Chippenham Parliamentary Division Of Wiltshire, England, 99m. W. Of London By The G.w.r. Pop. 3,463. Area, 356 Acres. It Lies In The Valley Of The Calne, And Is Surrounded By The High Table-land Of Salisbury Plain And The Marlborough Downs. ...

Calomel
Calomel Occurs In Nature As The Mineral Horn-quicksilver, Found As Translucent Tetragonal Crystals With An Adamantine Lustre And Whitish Grey Or Brownish Colour; It Is Mercurous Chloride (mercury Subchloride), Hal,. The Chief Localities Are Idria, Obermoschel, Horowitz In Bavaria And Almaden In Spain. It Was Used In Medicine As Early ...

Caloocan
Caloocan, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 31 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Rizal, Luzon, Philippine Islands, Not Far From Manila. Pop. (1918) 19,551, Of Whom 61 Were Whites. The Principal Products Of This Fertile Region Are Rice, Sugar And Coconuts. In 1918 It Had 18 Manufacturing Establishments ...

Calorescence
Calorescence. When Radiant Energy Is Absorbed By A Substance (i.e., When The Sum Of The Reflected And Transmitted Energies Is Not Equal To The Incident Energy) The Absorbed Energy Is Usually Transformed Into Radiant Energy Of A Different Wave Length Or Refrangibility, Or Into Energy Of Another Form. The Conversion ...

Caloric
Caloric, A Hypothetical Imponderable Fluid To Whose Action The Early Scientists Ascribed The Manifestations Of Heat (q.v.). ...

Calorie
Calorie (also Spelt Calory). A Unit Of Heat Defined As The Quantity Of Heat Required To Raise A Unit Mass Of Water One Degree In Temperature On The Centigrade Scale, In Which The Freezing Point Of Water Is Taken As Oc. And The Boiling Point As 00c. The Magnitude Of ...

Calorific Value
Calorific Value, The Number Of Heat Units Obtained By The Complete Combustion (q.v.) Of Unit Mass Of A Fuel (see ...

Calorimetrv
Calorimetrv, Is The Scientific Term For The Measurement Of Quantities Of Heat And Must Be Carefully Distinguished From Thermometry, Which Signifies The Measurement Of Temperature Or Degree Of Hotness. Quantities Of Heat May Be Measured In Various Ways By Observing The Effects They Produce. The Most Important Of These Effects ...

Calovius
Calovius (1612-1686) (the Latinized Name Of Abraham Calan), German Lutheran Divine, Was Born At Mohrungen, East Prussia, On April 16, 1612. After Studying At Konigsberg, In 165o He Was Appointed Professor Of Theology At Wittenberg, Where He Afterwards Became General Superintendent And Primarius. He Died There On Feb. 25, 1686. ...

Calpurnia
Calpurnia, Wife Of Julius Caesar, Was The Daughter Of L. Calpurnius Piso, Consul In 58 B.c. She Married Caesar In 59. Alarmed By The Rumours Of Conspiracy Current Before Caesar's Murder, She Did Her Best To Dissuade Him From Going To The Senate House On The 15th Of March 44. ...

Caltagirone
Caltagirone, A City And Episcopal See Of The Province Of Catania, Sicily, Situated Above Sea-level, 36m. S.w. Of Catania Direct (55m. By Rail) . Pop. (1931) Town 34,160 ; Com Mune 38,178. Extensive Sicel Cemeteries Have Been Explored To The North Of The Town, And A Greek Necropolis Of The ...

Caltanisetta
Caltanisetta, A Town And Episcopal See Of Sicily, The Capital Of A Province Of The Same Name, 6o M. S.e. Of Palermo Direct And 83 M. By Rail, Situated 1,930 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. , (town) ; 44,067 (commune) . The Town Is Of Saracenic Origin, And Some Ruins Of ...

Caltrop
Caltrop (from The Mid. Eng. Calketrappe, Probably De Rived From The Lat. Calx, A Heel, And Trappa, Late Lat. For A Snare), An Iron Ball, Used As An Obstacle Against Cavalry, With Four Spikes So Arranged That, However Placed In Or On The Ground, One Spike Always Points Upwards. It ...

Calumet
Calumet, The Name Given By The French In Canada To The "peace-pipe" Of The American Indians (norm. Fr. Chalumet, Lat. Calamus, A Reed). This Pipe Occupied Among The Tribes A Position Of Peculiar Symbolic Significance, And Was The Object Of Profound Veneration. It Was Smoked On All Ceremonial Occasions, Even ...

Calumpit
Calumpit, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 23 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Bulacan, Luzon, Philip Pine Islands, At The Junction Of The Quingua And Pampanga Rivers, About 25 M. N.w. Of Manila. Pop. (1918) 14,844, Of Whom Only 7 Were Whites. It Is On The Manila And ...

Calvados
Calvados, A Department Of North-western France, Formed In 1790 Out Of Bessin, Cinglais, Hiemois, Bocage, The Campagne De Caen, Auge And The Western Part Of Lieuvin. Pop. (1931) 401, Area, 2,197 Sq.m. It Received Its Name From A Ledge Of Rocks, Stretching Along The Coast For A Distance Of About ...

Calvary
Calvary, The Scene Of Christ's Crucifixion; The Word Is The English Form Of The Vulgate, Calvaria, Greek Kp&viov, "skull," Hebrew, Golgotha. The Name Is Applied To A Sculptured Represen Tation Of The Crucifixion, Either Inside A Church Or In The Open Air. Important Examples Of The Latter Are The Sacro ...

Calvert
Calvert, The Name Of Three English Artists : Charles (1785-1852), A Well-known Landscape Painter; Edward (1803 1883) , An Important Wood-engraver And Follower Of Blake; And Frederick, An Excellent Topographical Draughtsman, Whose Work In Water-colour Is Represented At The Victoria And Albert Museum, London, And Who Published A Volume Of ...

Calves Head Club
Calves' Head Club, A Club Established Shortly After His Death In Derision Of The Memory Of Charles I. Its Chief Meet Ing Was Held Each Jan. 3o, The Anniversary Of The King's Execu Tion, When The Dishes Served Were A Cod's Head To Represent The Individual, Charles Stuart; A Pike ...

Calvi
Calvi, A Sea-port Of North-west Corsica, Having Railway Connections With Ile Rousse Eastwards Along The Coast. Pop. Situated On The Bay Of Calvi, It Is The Nearest Corsican Port To France, Being 109m. From Antibes; The Harbour, However, Is Exposed To The East And North-east Winds. Calvi Was Founded In ...

Calvinistic Methodists
Calvinistic Methodists, A Body Of Christians Forming A Church Of The Presbyterian Order And Claiming To Be The Only Denomination In Wales Which Is Of Purely Welsh Origin. Its Beginnings May Be Traced To The Labours Of The Rev. Griffith Jones (1684-1761), Of Llanddowror, Carmarthenshire, Whose Sympathy For The Poor ...

Calw
Calw, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Wurttemberg, On The Nagold, W.s.w. Of Stuttgart. Pop. (1925) 5,6s1. The Name Of Calw Appears First In 1037. In The Middle Ages The Town Was Under The Dominion Of A Powerful Family Of Counts, Whose Possessions Finally Passed To Wurttemberg In ...

Calydon
Calydon, An Ancient Town Of Aetolia, According To Pliny, 71 Roman M. From The Sea, On The River Euenus. It Was Said To Have Been Founded By Calydon, Son Of Aetolus ; To Have Been The Scene Of The Hunting, By Meleager And Other Heroes, Of The Famous Calydonian Boar ...

Calypso
Calypso, In Greek Mythology, Daughter Of Atlas (or Oceanus, Or Nereus), A Nymph Of The Mythical Island Of Ogygia. She Entertained Odysseus (q.v.) Seven Years, But Could Not Over Come His Longing For Home Even By A Promise Of Immortality ; At Last Hermes Was Sent By Zeus To Bid ...

Calystegia
Calystegia, A Genus Of Twining Plants Of The Family Con Volvulaceae (q.v.), Commonly Known As Bindweeds And Compris Ing Some 15 Or More Species, Widely Distributed In Temperate And Tropical Regions, Eight Of Which Are Found In California. It Differs Botanically From Convolvulus In That The Calyx Is Subtended By ...

Cam
Cam, A Portion Of A Machine Used For Converting Rotary Mo Tion Into Reciprocating Or Intermittent Motion, Or Vice Versa. It Consists Of A Disk Usually Mounted On A Revolving Shaft, The Peri Phery Of The Disk Having A Varying Radius So Its Motion Is Eccentric. Against This Turning Surface ...

Camaldulians
Camaldulians, A Religious Order Founded By St. Romuald (also Called Camaldolese). Born Of A Noble Family At Ravenna C. 95o, He Retired At The Age Of Twenty To The Benedictine Monastery Of S. Apollinare In Classe; But Being Strongly Drawn To The Eremitical Life, He Went To Live With A ...

Camargue
Camargue, The Thinly-populated Rhone Delta, Department Of Bouches-du-rhone, France. It Is A Marshy Alluvial Plain Be Tween The Grand Rhone To The East And The Petit Rhone To The West. Its Average Elevation Is From 62 To 8 Feet. The Camargue Has A Coast-line Some 3om. In Length And An ...

Camarina
Camarina, An Ancient City Of Sicily, Situated On The S. Coast, About 17m. S.e. Of Gela (terranova). It Was Founded By Syracuse In 598 B.c., But Defeated By The Mother City In 553 In An Attempt To Assert Its Independence. Hippocrates Of Gela Received Its Territory From Syracuse And Restored ...

Cambaluc
Cambaluc, The Name By Which The City On The Site Of The Present Peking In China Became Known To Mediaeval Europe. The Word Represents The Mongol Khan-balik, "the City Of The Khan," And Was Often, As By Longfellow, Inaccurately Spelt Cam Balu. A City Had Long Stood On Its Site, ...

Cambay
Cambay, A Native State (kaira Agency) Of India, In The Gujarat Division Of Bombay. It Has An Area Of 35o Square Miles. Pop. (1931) 87,761. The Tribute Is 1,337. Cambay Is Entirely An Alluvial Plain. As A Separate State It Dates Only From About 1730, The Time Of The ...

Camber
Camber, In Engineering, The Upward Convexity Given To A Beam Or Girder To Allow For The Load. If The Camber Is Properly Calculated, The Cambered Member Becomes Straight When Loaded. The Word Camber Is From Fr. Cambrer, To Arch, And Is Also Used In Other Connections; E.g., The Curve Given ...

Camberwell
Camberwell, A Southern Metropolitan Borough Of Lon Don, England, Bounded North By Southwark And Bermondsey, East By Deptford And Lewisham, West By Lambeth And Extending South To The Boundary Of The County Of London. Pop. (1931) Area, 4,48o Acres. It Appears In Domesday, But The Derivation Of The Name Is ...

Cambist
Cambist, A Shortened Form Of Cambista, Which Is Italian For Money-changer. A Cambist Is One Who Deals In Foreign Bills Of Exchange And Bank Notes. The Term Is Also Applied To Conversion Tables Of Foreign Money, Weights, And Measures. (see Exchanges, ...

Cambodia
Cambodia, A Protectorate Within French Indo-china. It Is Bounded North By Siam And Laos, East By Annam, South-east And South By Cochin-china, South-west By The Gulf Of Siam, And West By Siam. Its Area Is 65,000 Sq.m. ; Its Population (1926) 2,402,583, Three-quarters Cambodian, The Rest Chinese, Annamese, Chams, Etc. ...

Camborne
Camborne, A Market Town Of Cornwall, England, 13m. W.s.w. Of Truro, On The G.w.r. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 14,157. It Lies On The Northward Slope Of The Central Elevation Of The County, Among Numerous Tin And Copper Mines. Mining, Metal Working, Stone-quarrying And The Making Of Chemicals Are The ...

Cambrai
Cambrai, A Town Of Northern France, The Seat Of An Arch Bishop And Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Nord, 37 M. S.s.e., Of Lille On The Main Line Of The Northern Railway. Pop. (1931) 26,239. Cambrai Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Canalized Schelde, Arms ...

Cambria
Cambria, The M. Lat. Name For Wales. After The End Of The Western Roman Empire The Cymric Celts Held For A While Both Wales And The Land Round The Solway (now Cumberland And Ad Jacent Regions), And The Former Came To Be Called Cambria, The Latter Cumbria, Though The Two ...

Cambrian System
Cambrian System, In Geology, Is The Name Applied To The Oldest Group Of Rocks In Which Fossils Have Been Found In Any Abundance. Organic Remains Have, Indeed, Been Discovered In Still Older Beds, But They Are Rare And Obscure. The Name Was Originally Proposed By Sedgwick And, As Used By ...

Cambric
Cambric. A Word Derived From Kameryk Or Kamerijk, The Flemish Name Of Cambrai, A Town In The Department Of Nord, France, Where The Cloth Of This Name Is Said To Have Been First Made. It Was Originally Made Of Fine Linen. There Is A Record Of A Privy Purse Expenditure ...

Cambridge Platonists
Cambridge Platonists, A School Of Philosophico Religious Thinkers Which Flourished Mainly At Cambridge Uni Versity In The Second Half Of The 17th Century. The Founder Was Benjamin Whichcote And The Chief Members Were Ralph Cud Worth, Richard Cumberland, Joseph Glanvill, Henry More And John Norris (see Separate Articles). Other Less ...

Cambridge University
Cambridge University. (see Also Universities.) Schools Of Some Sort Certainly Existed In Cambridge In The Twelfth Century, But We Cannot Speak Of Anything Approaching A University In The Technical Sense, A Studium Generale, Until The Thirteenth. The Reputation Of Cambridge Teaching Was Good Enough To Attract A Number Of Oxford ...

Cambridge
Cambridge, A Municipal And Parliamentary Borough, The Seat Of A University, And The County Town Of Cambridgeshire, England, 56 M. N. By E. Of London By The L.n.e.r. And Served Also By The L.m.s.r. Area 5,457 Acres. Pop. (1931) 66,803. It Lies At The Southern Border Of The Fen Country, ...

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire, An Eastern County Of England, Bounded North By Lincolnshire, East By Norfolk And Suffolk, South By Essex And Hertfordshire, And West By Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire And Northamptonshire. The Greater Part Of The County Falls Within The District Of The Fens, And Is Flat, Lying Only A Few Feet Above Sea-level, ...

Cambridge_2
Cambridge, A Town On The "eastern Shore" Of Maryland, U.s.a., On The Broad Estuary Of The Choptank River, Near Chesa Peake Bay; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Dorchester County. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania Railroad And By Steam Ers. The Population In 192o Was 7,467 ...

Cambridge_3
Cambridge, A City Of Massachusetts, U.s.a., On The Charles River, Opposite Boston; The County Seat Of Middlesex County. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad And The Local Transportation System Of The Boston Metropolitan Area, And For Freight By The Boston And Maine, The Boston And Albany And ...

Cambridge_4
Cambridge, A City Of Eastern Ohio, U.s.a., On A Hill 800f T. Above Sea-level ; The County Seat Of Guernsey County. It Is On Federal Highways 2i, 23 And 4o, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio And The Pennsylvania Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 13,104, (92.9% Native ...

Cambuslang
Cambuslang, Town And Parish, Lanarkshire, Scotland. It Is Situated Near The Clyde, 41 M. S.e. Of Glasgow (of Which It Is A Residential Suburb) By The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 27,128. Its Leading Industry Is Coal-mining, And It Contains One Of The Largest Steel Works In Great Britain. It Was The ...

Cambyses
Cambyses (pers. Kambujiya), The Name Borne By The Father And By The Son Of Cyrus The Great. When Cyrus Conquered Babylon In B.c. He Was Employed In Leading Religious Cere Monies (chronicle Of Nabonidus), And In The Cylinder Which Contains Cyrus's Proclamation To The Babylonians His Name Is Joined With ...

Camden
Camden, A City Of New Jersey, U.s.a., The County Seat Of Camden County, On The Delaware River, Opposite Philadelphia, With Which It Is Connected By A Suspension Bridge (opened 1926) Which Is 8,126ft. Long, 135ft. Above The Water, And Has A Span Of 1,75o Feet. It Is On Federal Highways ...

Camden_2
Camden, A City Of South Carolina, U.s.a., 3o M. N.e. Of Columbia, Near The Wateree River; The County Seat Of Kershaw County. It Is On Federal Highway 1 And Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line, The Seaboard Air Line And The Southern Railways. The Population In 192o Was (47% ...

Camel Corps
Camel Corps, A Military Unit Mounted On Camels For Service In The Desert. The First Egyptian Camel Corps Was Formed In 1884 For The Gordon Relief Expedition, The Personnel Being Drawn From British Units ; It Was Disbanded At The Conclusion Of The Campaign. Later A New Camel Corps Was ...