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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Aaron Chorin
Chorin, Aaron (1766-1844), Hungarian Rabbi And Pi Oneer Of Religious Reform, Born At Weisskirchen, Moravia, On Aug. 3, 1766, Educated At Prague, And Became Rabbi At Arad In 1789. His Emek Ha Shaweh (vale Of The Plain) Of 1803 Was Declared Heretical By The Orthodox Party, But He Continued To ...

Abraham Clark
Clark, Abraham (1726-1794), American Patriot And Signer Of The Declaration Of Independence, Was Born In Elizabeth Town, N.j., On Feb. 15, 17 26. After Receiving His Education In Mathematics And Civil Law, He Engaged In Conveyancing And Sur Veying. Though He Did Not Enter The Professional Practice Of Law, He ...

Adam Clarke
Clarke, Adam (17 6 2 2) , British Nonconformist Di Vine, Was Born At Moybeg, Co. Londonderry, Ireland, In 176o Or 1762. He Completed His Education At Kingswood School And In 1782 Was Appointed By Wesley Minister To The Bradford (wilt Shire) Circuit. He Was A Great Preacher, And Was ...

Adc
Adc Is The Minor Arc, And Apec The Major Arc, Between A And C. The Figure Composed Of An Arc And The Chord Joining Its Extrem Ities Is A Segment Of The Circle. In Fig. 1, Adcb And Apecb Are Respectively The Minor And Major Segments Made By The Chord ...

Agnes Mary Clerks
Clerks, Agnes Mary (1842-1907), English Astrono Mer And Scientific Writer, Was Born On Feb. Io, 1842, And Died In London On Jan. 20, 1907. Her Chief Works Were A Popular His Tory Of Astronomy During The Igth Century (1885, 4th Ed. 1902) ; The System Of The Stars (1890, 2nd. ...

Air Attack
Air Attack The Scale On Which Any Attack From The Air Can Take Place Depends Upon Whether It Can Start From A Land Base Within Reach Or Whether It Can Be Launched Only By Sea-borne Aircraft. It Is More Likely That Air Attack Would Be Directed On The Object Of ...

Albert Coates
Coates, Albert (1882– ), English Conductor And Composer, Was Born At St. Petersburg (leningrad), April 23, 1882, And Was Sent Home To England To Be Educated At Buckhurst Hill School, Essex, And Then At Liverpool University. Later He Studied At Leipzig Conservatoire And Had His First Experience Of Conduct Ing ...

Alexander Ross Clarke
Clarke, Alexander Ross British Geodesist, Was Born In Sutherlandshire On Dec. 16, 1828. He Studied At The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, And In 1847 Became A Second-lieutenant In The Royal Engineers. In 185o Clarke Was Posted To The Ordnance Survey At Southampton, And Except For A Break Between 1851-54 He ...

Alicia Or Alison Cockburn
Cockburn, Alicia Or Alison Scottish Poet, Author Of One Of The Most Exquisite Of Scottish Ballads, The "flowers Of The Forest," Was The Daughter Of Robert Rutherfurd Of Fairnalee, Selkirkshire, And Was Born On Oct. 8, 1713, And Died On Nov. 22, 1794. There Are Two Versions Of This Song—the ...

Alkaloids Of Cinchona Bark
Cinchona Bark, Alkaloids Of. About 3o Dis Tinct Alkaloids Have Been Isolated From Cinchona Bark, Of Which Quinine Is By Far The Most Important, Followed By Quinidine, Cinchonidine And Cinchonine. Owing To The Therapeutical Im Portance Of Cinchona Bark And Its Four Principal Alkaloids Most Of The National Pharmacopeias Prescribe ...

Alonso Sanchez Coello
Coello, Alonso Sanchez 59o), Spanish Painter, According To Some Authorities A Native Of Portugal, Was Born, According To Others, At Benifacio, Near The City Of Valencia. He Studied Many Years In Italy ; And Returning To Spain In 1541 He Settled At Madrid, And Worked On Religious Themes For Most ...

American Cigarettes
American Cigarettes Internal Revenue Figures Issued By The United States Govern Ment For The Year 1938 Show That Revenue Stamps Were Sold For 163,758,500,00o Cigarettes. Production In 1915 Was 17,964,000, 000; In 53,i Z0,0o0,0o0; In 1925, 82,247,000,000. About 1917, The Blended Type Of Cigarette Began To Become Popular With The ...

And Nehemiah
And Nehemiah. ...

And Occupations
And Occupations The Coal Miners Of Great Britain, That Is, Those In Employment At The Mines, Numbered 975,710 Persons In 1927; And When The Unemployed, The Women And Children And Various Surface Workers Are Included, This Figure Likely Exceeds 3,000,000. Differing Greatly As Between Districts In Point Of Disposition And ...

And Utilization
And Utilization Lignite (see Also Sections I. And Ii.) Is The Term Commonly Applied To Immature Coals, Whether Brown Or Black, Or What American Geologists Term Sub-bituminous Coal. Properly Speaking It Comprises Those Solid Fuels, Young Geologically, Which Have Re Tained Their Wooden Structure, And Have The Appearance Of Decayed ...

Anne Jemima Clough
Clough, Anne Jemima (kluf) 2o-1892 Tionalist And Sister Of The Poet, Arthur Hugh Clough, Born At Liver Pool Jan. 2o, 182o. When Two Years Old She Went With Her Family To Charleston, U.s.a., But Returned To England In 1836. Her Father's Failure In Business Led Her To Open A School ...

Antoine Barthelemy Clot
Clot, Antoine Barthelemy French Physician, Known As Clot Bey, Was Born At Grenoble On Nov. 7, 1793, And Graduated In Medicine And Surgery At Montpellier. After Practising For A Time At Marseilles He Was Made Chief Sur Geon To Mohammed Ali, Viceroy Of Egypt. At Abuzabel, Near Cairo, He Founded ...

Antoine Claudet
Claudet, Antoine Frangois Jean (1797 1867), French Photographer, Was Born At Lyons On Aug. 12, 1797. Having Acquired A Share In L. J. M. Daguerre's Invention, He Was One Of The First To Practise Daguerreotype Portraiture In England, And He Improved The Sensitizing Process By Using Chlorine In Addition To ...

Antonio Coello
Coello, Antonio (1611-1652), Spanish Dramatist And Poet, Was Born At Madrid And Entered The Household Of The Duke Of Albuquerque. His Best Known Plays Are El Conde De Sex, El Celoso Extremeno (dramatizing One Of Cervantes' Novelas Exemp Lares) And Los Empenos De Seis Boras. The Latter Was Adapted By ...

Arthur Hugh Clough
Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819-1861), English Poet, Was Born At Liverpool On Jan. 1, 1819. In 1822 His Father, A Cotton Merchant, Moved To The United States, And Clough's Child Hood Was Spent Mainly At Charleston (s.c.). In 1828 The Family Visited England, And Clough Was Left At School At Chester, ...

Artificial Climate
Climate, Artificial. The Usual Significance Of The Word Climate Is To Indicate The Result Of All The Solar And Terrestrial Influences Or Factors Which Affect Animal Or Vegetable Life. These Factors Include Temperature And Humidity; Gaseous Composition; Pressure And Movement Of Air; Light Intensity And Quality. An Arti Ficial Climate ...

Athanasios Christopoulos
Christopoulos, Athanasios Greek Poet, Was Born At Castoria In Macedonia. He Studied At Buda And Padua, And Became Teacher Of The Children Of The Vlach Prince Mourousi. After The Fall Of Mourousi In 181 I He Was Employed By Prince Caradja, Hospodar Of Moldavia And Walachia, In Drawing Up A ...

Auguste Chouteau
Chouteau, Auguste (1739-1829), American Pioneer, Was Born In New Orleans, La., In 1739. With His Younger Brother Pierre (1749-1849), He Was The Founder Of The City Of St. Louis, Mo. In August, 1763, They Joined The Expedition Of Pierre Li Gueste Laclede Who Had Received A Commission From The Director ...

Aulus Cluentius Habitus
Cluentius Habitus, Aulus, Of Larinum In Sam Nium, The Hero Of A Roman Cause Celebre. In 74 B.c. He Accused His Step-father Statius Albius Oppianicus Of An Attempt To Poison Him, And Oppianicus Was Condemned. But There Had Been Bribery; Cluentius Was Degraded, And In 66 Charged With Having Caused ...

Babylonian And Assyrian Chronology
Babylonian And Assyrian - Chronology Evidence Of Babylonian Documents, From 33o B.c. Onwards, Dated By Kings' Regnal Years Has Settled Many Points In Relation To The Chronology Of Late As Well As Of Early Periods, Though This Evidence Has Been Much Discussed And Often Wrongly Represented. It Is Now Fairly ...

Barbara Villiers Cleveland
Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, Duchess Of (1641-1709), Mistress Of The English King, Charles Ii., Was The Daughter Of William Villiers, 2nd Viscount Grandison (d. 1643) By His Wife Mary (d. 1684), Daughter Of Paul, 1st Viscount Bayning. In April 1659 Barbara Married Roger Palmer, Who Was Created Earl Of Castlemaine Two ...

Benefit Of Clergy
Clergy, Benefit Of, An Obsolete But Once Very Im Portant Feature In English Criminal Law. Benefit Of Clergy Began With The Claim On The Part Of The Ecclesiastical Authorities In The Lath Century That Every Clericus Should Be Exempt From The Juris Diction Of The Temporal Courts And Be Subject ...

Bogdan Chmielnicki
Chmielnicki, Bogdan (c. Hetman Of The Cossacks, But A Pole By Descent, Was Born Near Chigirin In The Ukraine. He Entered The Cossack Ranks And Was Captured By The Turks ; During His Two Years' Captivity In Constantinople He Learnt Turkish And French. On His Return To The Ukraine He ...

Books Of Chronicles
Chronicles, Books Of, Two Old Testament Books Of The Bible. The Name Is Derived From Chronicon, First Suggested By Jerome As A Rendering Of The Title Which They Bear In The He Brew Canon, Viz. Events Of The Times. (r Chron. Xxviii. 24 ; Esth. X. 2, Etc.) The Greek ...

British Dominions And Colonies
British Dominions And Colonies In The Self-governing Dominions And Colonies The Civil Service Is Controlled By The Government Of The Dominion Or Colony In Question. In Colonies Not Possessing Responsible Government The Civil Service Is Partly Recruited From Among Local Candidates, But The Higher Officials Are Appointed Directly Through The ...

Burke
Burke), Ist Earl Of (d. 1544), Styled Macwilliam And Ne-gan Or Na-gceann (i.e., "of The Heads," "having Made A Mount Of The Heads Of Men Slain In Battle Which He Covered Up With Earth"), Was The Son Of Richard Or Rickard De Burgh, Lord Of Clanricarde, By A Daughter Of ...

Burning The Clavie
Clavie, Burning The, An Ancient Scottish Custom Still Observed At Burghead, A Fishing Village On The Moray Firth, Near Forres. The "clavie" Is A Bonfire Of Casks Split In Two, Lighted On Jan. 12, Corresponding To The New Year Of The Old Calendar. One Of These Casks Is Joined Together ...

Cacao Cultivation
Cacao Cultivation Cacao Can Be Profitably Cultivated Only Within 20 Degrees North Or South Of The Equator ; It Requires A Mean Shade Temperature Of 8o°f., And An Evenly Distributed Rainfall Of 5o To I Soin. A Year. The Cacao Tree Requires A Rich Porous Soil Of Considerable Depth, And ...

Cadwallader Golden
Golden, Cadwallader (1688-17 7 6), American Physician, Historian And Colonial Official, Was Born At Duns, Scot Land, On Feb. 17, 1688. He Graduated At The University Of Edin Burgh In 1705, Devoting Himself To Scientific Studies There And In London, And Emigrated To Philadelphia In 1710. There He Engaged In ...

Carel Gabriel Cobet
Cobet, Carel Gabriel (1813-1889), Dutch Classical Scholar, Was Born At Paris On Nov. 28, 1813. After Travelling In Italy To Study Greek Mss., He Was Professor At Leyden (1846 1884). He Died On Oct. 26, 1889. Cobet's Special Weapon As A Critic Was His Consummate Knowledge Of Palaeography, Combined With ...

Carlo Cignani
Cignani, Carlo (1628-171g), Italian Painter, Was Born At Bologna, Where He Studied Under Battista Cairo, And After Wards Under Francesco Albani. Though An Intimate Friend Of The Latter And His Most Famous Disciple, Cignani Was Yet Strongly And Deeply Influenced By The Genius Of Correggio. His Greatest Work, The "assumption ...

Caroline Clive
Clive, Caroline (1801-1873), English Authoress, Was Born In London, June 24, I8o1, Died At Whitfield, Herefordshire, On July 13 1873. She Was The Daughter Of Mr. Meysey-wigley, M.p. For Worcester, And Married, In 1840, The Rev. Archer Clive. She Is Best Known As The Author Of Paul Ferroll (1855), A ...

Cassius Marcellus Clay
Clay, Cassius Marcellus American Politician, Was Born In Madison County, Ky., On Oct. 19, 181o. He Was The Son Of Green Clay (17 57-1826), A Kentucky Soldier Of The War Of 1812 And A Relative Of Henry Clay. He Was Edu Cated At Centre College, Danville, Ky., And At Yale, ...

Catherine Clive
Clive, Catherine British Ac Tress, Was Born, Probably In London, In 1711. Her Father, William Raftor, An Irishman Of Good Family But Small Means, Had Held A Captain's Commission In The French Army Under Louis Xiv. About 1728 She Began To Play At Drury Lane, Of Which Colley Cibber Was ...

Cesar Choiseul
Choiseul, Cesar, De (1598-1675), French Mar Shal And Diplomatist, Known For The Best Part Of His Life As The Marshal Du Plessis-praslin, Came Of The Old French Family Of Choiseul, Which Arose In The Valley Of The Upper Marne In The Loth Century. Entering The Army He Took Part In ...

Champ Clark
Clark, Champ (1850-1921), American Politician, Was Born In Anderson Co., Ky., On March 7, 185o. He First Entered Kentucky University But Finished His Course At Bethany College In 1873. The Following Year He Was Elected President Of Marshall College, West Virginia, And One Year Later Was Admitted To The Bar. ...

Chanktus Chukchi
Chukchi, Chanktus ("men") Or Tuski ("brothers" Or "confederates"), A Mongoloid People Inhabiting The North-eastern Most Portion Of Siberia On The Shores Of The Arctic Ocean And Bering Sea. They Are Settled In Small Groups Along The Arctic Coast Between The Bering Strait And The Kolyma River, Or Wander As Far ...

Characteristics Of The Polar
Characteristics Of The Polar Zones The Temperate Zones Merge Into The Polar Zones At The Arctic And Antarctic Circles, Or, If Temperature Be Used As The Basis Of Classification, At The Isotherms Of 5o°f For The Warmest Month, As Suggested By Supan. The Longer Or Shorter Absence Of The Sun ...

Charles Abbot Colchester
Colchester, Charles Abbot, Ist Baron 1829), Was Born In Abingdon, And Educated At Westminster School And Oxford. In 1795, After Having Practised 12 Years As A Barrister, He Was Appointed Clerk Of The Rules In The King's Bench And Elected Member Of Parliament. To His Efforts Were Due The Establishment ...

Charles Chubb
Chubb, Charles (d. 1845), English Locksmith, Started A Hardware Business At Winchester, Subsequently Removing To Port Sea. Here He Improved On The "detector" Lock Originally Patented In 1818 By His Brother, Jeremiah Chubb. He Soon Moved To London And Then To Wolverhampton, Where He Employed Two Hundred Workers. In 1835 ...

Charles Churchill
Churchill, Charles (1731-1764), English Poet And Satirist, Was Born In Westminster, In Feb. 1731. His Father, A Clergyman, Destined His Son For The Church, And Charles Was Ordained In 1756. He Was Married At The Age Of 18, But His Married Life Was Unhappy And In 1761 He Separated From ...

Charles Clay
Clay, Charles (1801-1893), English Surgeon, Was Born At Bredbury, Near Stockport, On Dec. 27, 1801. He Qualified At Edinburgh In 1823 And Settled In Manchester As A Consultant In 1839. In 1842 He First Performed The Operation Of Ovariotomy With Which His Name Is Associated, And In 1865 Was Able ...

Charles Colbert De Croissy
Colbert De Croissy, Charles, Marquis (1625— 1696), French Diplomatist, Like His Elder Brother Jean Baptiste Colbert, Began His Career In The Office Of The Minister Of War, Le Tellier. In 1656 He Bought A Counsellorship At The Parlement Of Metz, And In 1658 Was Appointed Intendant Of Alsace And Presi ...

Charles Cowden Clarke
Clarke, Charles Cowden English Author And Shakespearian Scholar, Was Born At Enfield, Middlesex, On Dec. 15, 1787. His Father, John Clarke, Was A Schoolmaster, Among Whose Pupils Was John Keats. Charles Clarke Taught Keats His Letters, And Encouraged His Love Of Poetry. He Knew Charles And Mary Lamb, And Afterwards ...

Charles Francis Coghlan
Coghlan, Charles Francis Irish Actor, Was Born In Paris, And Made His First London Appearance In 1860. He Went To America In 1876, Where He Remained For The Rest Of His Life, Playing First In Augustin Daly's Company And Then In The Union Square Stock Company, During The Long Run ...

Charles Robert Cockerell
Cockerell, Charles Robert Brit Ish Architect, Was Born In London On April 28 1788. After Study Ing Under His Father, Samuel Pepys Cockerell (1754-1827), He Went Abroad In 1810 And Studied The Great Architectural Remains Of Greece, Italy And Asia Minor. At Aegina, Phigaleia And Other Places Of Interest, He ...

Charlotte
Charlotte, Colley Cibber's Youngest Daughter, Married Rich Ard Charke, A Violinist, From Whom She Was Soon Separated. She Began As An Understudy To Actresses In Leading Parts, But Quar Relled With Her Manager, Charles Fleetwood, On Whom She Wrote A One-act Skit, The Art Of Management 0735). She Also Wrote ...

Chemistry Of Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll, Chemistry Of. Chlorophyll Is The Green Colouring Matter Of Leaves And Is Present In All Growing Veg Etable Cells. Unexpectedly, The Pigment Responsible For The Brown Colour Of Certain Algae Has Been Found To Be Identical With The Chlorophyll Of Land Plants. We Owe Our Present Knowledge Of The ...

Chief Centres Of Production
Chief Centres Of Production Many Countries Have A Justifiable Pride In The China They Pro Duce ; There Are Special Characteristics Attached To The Composi Tion Of The "bodies" (the Ware Itself) And The Decoration; They Have Beauties Of Their Own And Comparison Is Not Possible. The Pottery Industry Has ...

Chin Hills
Chin Hills, A Constituent Hill-group Of The Mountain Arc, Stretching From The Arakan Yoma Northwards To The Patkai Hills, Between Burma And India. This Mountain Arc, Compressed At Either End, Has Advanced Farthest Towards The West In The Centre Where The Long Parallel Folds Are Most Numerous And The Arc ...

China Administration
China - Administration Since The Revolution Of 1911, Which Abolished The Imperial Office And The Time-honoured Machinery Of Administration, China Has Passed Through A Bewildering Series Of Political Changes And Civil Wars (see Under History). On The Eve Of The Outbreak Of The Sino-japanese Hostilities Of 1937 A Quieter Phase ...

China Aesthetic Development
China - Aesthetic Development In Northern China, Mainly In The Basin Of The Huang Ho Or Yellow River, There Slowly Emerged In Late Prehistoric Times A Focus Of Civilization Destined Eventually To Make Its Influence Felt In All The Neighbouring Regions, Both Continental And Insular. Apart From Certain Well-shaped Stone ...

China Animal
China - Animal Profusion Of Vegetation And Variety Of Relief Have Fostered The Development Of A Fauna Of Great Diversity And Have Permitted The Survival Of Animals Elsewhere Extinct. The Diversity Of The Animal Life Is Greatest In The Ranges And Valleys Of Remote Western China And Here Mainly Occur ...

China Archaeology
China - Archaeology. The Study Of Prehistory In China Is Particularly Difficult Owing Very Largely To The Geographical Structure Of The Country. Three Areas May Be Enumerated, The Great Prairie Region, Which In Cludes Much Of Mongolia And Part Of Western Manchuria, Northern China, Including The Great Plain And The ...

China Climate
China - Climate China Has The Essential Monsoonal Characteristic Of A Seasonal Reversal Of Wind And A Corresponding Sharply Marked Seasonal Differentiation Of Rainfall. The Northerly Outflowing Winds Of Winter Give Its Dry Season, The Southerly Inflowing Winds Of Sum Mer Its Season Of Rains. Unlike India, Hemmed In By ...

China Defence
China - Defence Historical.—up To The Date Of The Reforms Of 1905-06 The Chinese Constitution Provided For Two Sorts Of Military Organiza Tion, The Manchu Army And Several Armies In The Provinces. When The Dynasty Of 1644 Was Originally Established The Victorious Troops, Mostly Composed Of Manchus, But Including Also ...

China Ethnology
China - Ethnology. Although Man Probably Existed In China Before Or At The Be Ginning Of The Deposition Of The Loess (see Asia, Section Anthro Pology) There Is At Present No Certain Evidence Of Palaeolithic Man In China. Two Specimens Have Been Found Which Have Been Considered To Point To ...

China Foreign Trade
China - Foreign Trade The Origin And Characteristics Of The System By Which The Foreign Trade Of China Has Been Organized From The Middle Of The I9th Century Down To The Present Time (1939) Are Explained In The Section On History. Some Impending Changes Of Great Im Portance Are Indicated ...

China History
China - History Introduction. The Influence Of Physical Environment.- Throughout Its Course The History Of China Has Been Profoundly Affected By Physical Environment. In The First Place, What Is Known As China Proper Is Singularly Fitted For A Large And Civil Ized Population. Fertile Valleys, The Loess Soil, Great Alluvial ...

China The Confucianrevival
China - The Confucian Revival The Ming Ming Period (1368-1644) Is Espe Cially Noteworthy For Its Great Achievements In Architecture, Even To-day Hardly Appreciated At Their Real Worth. Nearly All The City And Frontier Walls, Paved Roads, Bridges, Palaces, Temples And Pagodas Still Existing In China Were Constructed By The ...

China The Effectof
China - The Effect Of Buddhism The New Religious Factor.—it Was, However, In Religious Rather Than Secular Art, That The Period Achieved Its Greatest Aesthetic Triumphs. This Was Due To The Introduction Of Buddhism From India. The Effect Of This Upon China And Her Neighbours Throughout All Subsequent History Has ...

China The Peopleand
China - The People And Their Civilization China At The Present Time Is Passing Through The Most Momen Tous Transformation In Her History; Affecting Every Aspect Of Life: Economic, Cultural And Political. The Essential Features Of Her Traditional Civilization Were Developed And Established Three To Four Thousand Years Ago In ...

China Vegetation
China - Vegetation It Is Very Difficult To Reconstruct The Primitive Vegetation For The Face Of Nature Has Been Greatly Changed By Long And Intensive Cultivation, And Woods Particularly Have Been Destroyed. From The Evidence Of What Remains, The Natural Vegetation Of By Far The Greater Part Of China Must ...

China
China, A Vast Country Of Eastern Asia, The Scene Of The Old Est Contemporary Civilization And The World's Largest Cultural Unit. The Official Name Is Chung-hua, Min-kuo, I.e., Republic Of China. See Chinese Architecture, Chinese Literature Etc. The Territory Of China Now Comprises: (a) China Proper With 18 Provinces. The ...

Chinan Or Tsinan
Chinan Or Tsinan, A Large And Historic City And The Capital Of The Province Of Shantung In North China, 36° 43' N., '16° 37' E. Chinan Is Situated At The Northern Base Of The Ancient Highlands Of Shantung (near Tai-shan The Sacred Mountain) Where They Sink Beneath The Alluvium Of ...

Chinandega
Chinandega, An Important City Of Nicaragua, Central America, Capital Of The Department Or State Of The Same Name. It Is 13m. N.n.e. Of The Pacific Port Of Corinto, On The Pacific Railway; Population, 14,415. It Is 22m. From Leon And 74m. From Managua, The National Capital. Chinandega Is The Centre ...

Chinaware
Chinaware, A Name Given To A Hard, Translucent Pottery. (for United States Chinaware See P. 554.) Earthenware Is Sometimes Quite Thin, And It Is A Common Error Not To Discriminate Between This And The Ware Which Is Properly Called China. A Simple Test For China Is Its Translucency, Which Allows ...

China_2
China (ware) : See Pottery And Porcelain. So Called Because It Is An Essential Ingredient In The Manufacture Of China Or Porcelain. It Is Also Known As Kaolin, A Corruption Of The Chinese Kau-ling, Meaning "high Ridge," The Name Of A Hill East Of King-te-chen, Whence The Earli Est Samples ...

Chinch Bug
Chinch Bug, A North American Heteropterous Insect (blissus Leucopterus) Occurring In Most Parts Of The United States, But Particularly Destructive To Grain Crops In The Valleys Of The Mississippi, Missouri And Ohio Rivers. It Is Probably The Most Destructive Native Insect, And Has Frequently Damaged Crops To The Extent Of ...

Chincha Islands
Chincha Islands, Three Small Islands In The Pacific Ocean, About 12m. From The Coast Of Peru, To Which Country They Belong, Opposite The Town Of Pisco, And 1 O6m. From Callao, 13 ° 38' S., 76° 28' W. The Largest Of The Group, Known As The North Island Or Isla ...

Chinchilla
Chinchilla, A Small Grey Hopping Rodent (chinchilla Lanigera), The Size Of A Squirrel, Inhabiting The Eastern Slopes Of The Andes In Chile And Bolivia, At Altitudes Between 8,000 And I 2,000 Ft. It Typifies Not Only The Genus Chinchilla, But The Family Chinchillidae (see Rodentia). The Chinchilla Is About Io ...

Chinde
Chinde, A Town (municipality) Of Portuguese East Africa, And Seat Of Local Government Representative (intendente) , Is The Chief Port For The Zambezi Valley And The Centre Of Distribution Of The River Traffic For The Interior As Far As Tete. Till Recently It Was Also The Chief Port For British ...

Chindwin
Chindwin, River Of Burma, The Largest Tributary Of The Irrawaddy, Called Ningthi By The Manipuris. It Is Formed By The Junction Of The Tanai, The Tawan And The Taron Or Turong, But There Is Doubt As To Which Is The Main Stream. The Tanai Rises On The Shwedaung-gyi Peak Of ...

Chinese Architecture
Chinese Architecture. The Art Of Building In China Has Always Been Closely Dependent On The Intimate Feeling Of The Chinese People For The Significance And Beauty Of Nature. They Arranged Their Buildings With Special Regard To The "spirits Of Earth, Water And Air," Their Ambition Being Not To Dominate Nature ...

Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway. In 1895 There Was Formed, Under Russian Charter, But With A Predominance Of French Capital And With Some Capital Owned By The Chinese Government, The Russo-chinese Bank. When, In 1896, Russia Obtained From China Permission To Shorten The Trans-siberian Railway By Build Ing A Line Across Northern ...

Chinese Immigration
Chinese Immigration. The First Recorded Chinese Immigrants To The United States Reached San Francisco In 1848; Not Until 1852 Did They Begin To Arrive In Considerable Numbers, When At Least 18,000 Were In The Country. During The Next Eight Years Their Numbers Almost Doubled. Some Became Miners, Serv Ants, Laundrymen ...

Chinese Language
Chinese Language. In Treating Of Chinese, It Will Be Convenient To Distinguish, Broadly, The Spoken From The Written Language Because For Reasons Connected With The Peculiar Nature Of The Script, The Two Soon Began To Move Along Independent And Largely Divergent Lines. Although Chinese, Like Other Living Languages, Must Have ...

Chinese Literature
Chinese Literature Is Especially Remarkable (i) For Its Antiquity, Coupled With An Almost Unbroken Continuity Down To The Present Day; (2) For The Variety Of Subjects Presented, And For The Exhaustive Treatment Which Not Only Each Subject But Also Each Subdivision Has Received, As Well As For The Colossal Scale ...

Chinese Music
Chinese Music. Music Played A Great Part In The Origins Of Ancient Chinese Civilization, The Pitch-pipe Of The Normal Pitch (called Huang-chung) Was The Basis Of The Chinese Sys Tem Of Measures, Of The Calendar And Of Their Astronomical Calcu Lations. ...

Chinese Painting
Chinese Painting. The First Thing To Be Said About Chinese Painting Is That Very Little Is Known Of Its Actual Achieve Ments. We Have Indeed Ample Records Of The Lives And Works Of Innumerable Painters, From The First Centuries Of Our Era Onwards, And A Mass Of Criticism. Chinese Paintings ...

Chinese Sculpture
Chinese Sculpture. The Historical Records About Sculptural Works In China Do Not Begin Until The Ch'in Dynasty (221-206 B.c.) ; The Earliest Refer To The 12 Colossal Statues Of "the Giant Barbarians" And The Bell-frames In The Shape Of Monsters "with Stags' Heads And Dragons' Bodies," Which The Great Emperor ...

Chinese Statues Of The
Chinese Statues Of The 7th Century A.d. 1. Vairochana Buddha, Colossal Statue At Lung-men, Ho-nan, About 676 3. Seated Bodhisattva, T'ien Lung Shan, Shan-si, T'ang Period 2. Standing Bodhisattva From Lung-men. Ho-nan, Tang Period, 619-906 4. Seated Bodhisattva, T'ien Lung Shan, Shan-si, T'ang Period The General Stylistic Current Of T'ang ...

Chinese
Chinese From The Time Of The Emperor Yao, Upwards Of 2,000 Years B.c., The Chinese Had Two Different Years—a Civil Year, Regu Lated By The Moon, And An Astronomical Year, Which Was Solar. The Civil Year Consisted In General Of Twelve Months Or Lunations, But Occasionally A Thirteenth Was Added ...

Chingford
Chingford, An Urban District Of Essex, England, I2m. N.e. Of London By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931) 22,051. It Lies Be Tween The River Lea And The Western Outskirts Of Epping Forest. The Church Of All Saints Has Early English And Perpendicular Re Mains. The Half-timbered Queen Elizabeth's, Or Fair Mead, ...

Chingleput
Chingleput, Town And District, British India, In The Madras Presidency. The Town, Situated 36 M. By Rail From Madras, And A Junction For A Branch Line To Arkonam, Had A Population In 1921 Of 11,763. With Chandragiri In North Arcot, Chingleput Was Once The Capital Of The Vijayanagar Kings, After ...

Chinkiang
Chinkiang, A Treaty Port Of China On The South Bank Of The Yangtze-kiang, 32° 11' N., 119° 24' E., 160 Miles Above Shanghai And 43 Miles Below Nanking. It Lies Where The North South Route Of The Grand Canal From Hangchow To Peking Crosses The East-west Route Of The Yangtze ...

Chinon
Chinon, A Town Of Western France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Indre-et-loire, On The Bank Of The Vienne, 32 M. S.w. Of Tours. Pop. It Lies Under A Rocky Crowned By Ruins Of The Famous Castle, Its Narrow, Winding Streets Containing Many Turreted Houses Of The ...

Chinook
Chinook. This Important American Indian People Held Columbia River From The Mouth To The Dalles, And Adjacent Terri Tory. Their Culture Was A Localized Form Of The North Pacific Coast Type (q.v.), With Plank Houses, Good Canoes, Trade, Slavery, Pot Latch Distributions Of Property, But Without Secret Societies Or Totemic ...

Chinook_2
Chinook, The Name Given To A Wind Which Blows From West Or North Over The Rocky Mountains, Where It Descends As A Dry Wind, Warm In Winter And Cool In Summer. It Is Due To A Cyclone Passing Northward, And Continues For A Few Hours To Several Days. It Moderates ...

Chinquapin
Chinquapin (castanea Pumila). A North American Shrub Or Small Tree Of The Beech Family (fagaceae), Found Chiefly In Dry Soils From New Jersey To Missouri And Southward To Missouri And Texas. While Usually Shrubby Eastward, It Sometimes Attains In Arkansas And Texas A Height Of 45 Ft. And A Trunk ...

Chinsura
Chinsura, A Town Of British India, On The Hooghly River, 24m. Above Calcutta, Formerly The Principal Dutch Settlement In Bengal. The Dutch Erected A Fortified Factory Here In 1656. In A British Force Under Col. Forde Was Attacked By The Gar Rison Of Chinsura On Its March To Chandernagore, But ...

Chintz
Chintz, A Word Derived From The Hindu Chint, Spotted Or Variegated. This Name Was Given To A Kind Of Stained Or Painted Calico Produced In India. It Is Now Applied To A Highly Glazed Printed Calico, Commonly Made In Several Colours On A Light Ground And Used For Bed Hangings, ...

Chinwangtao
Chinwangtao, 56' N. 119° 38' E., A Treaty Port On The Shores Of The Gulf Of Liao-tung In North-east China; The Port Was Created By, And The Harbour Is The Property Of, The Kailan Mining Administration, Which Works The Kaiping Coalfield Some 1 Oo Miles Away. Export Trade Originates Almost ...

Chioggia
Chioggia, A Town And Episcopal See Of Venetia, Italy, In The Province Of Venice, From Which It Is 18 1m. S. By Sea. Pop. (192i), 22,225 (town); 36,104 (commune). Chioggia Is Inhab Ited Mostly By Fishermen, And Is Situated Upon An Island At The South End Of The Lagoons. It ...

Chios
Chios, An Island On The West Coast Of Asia Minor (ancient Greek )(ios) About 3o M. Long From North To South, And From 8 To 15 M. Broad. The North End Is Mountainous With Steep Coasts; Southwards There Is Open Country, And Great Fertility. The Capital, Castro, On The East ...