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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Cocklebur
Cocklebur, The Name Given In The United States To Various Species Of X Anthiurn, Of The Family Compositae, Called Also Clotbur And Bur-weed, Which In Agricultural Districts Are P E R N I C I O U S Weeds. They Are Coarse, Rough And Sometimes Spiny Annual Herbs With Much ...

Cockney
Cockney, A Colloquial Name Applied To Londoners General Ly, But More Properly Confined To Those Born Within The Sound Of The Bells Of St. Mary-le-bow Church. The Origin Of The Word Has Been The Subject Of Many Guesses, But The Historical Examina Tion Of The Various Uses Of "cockney," By ...

Cockpit
Cockpit, Originally An Enclosed Place In Which The Sport Of Cock-fighting (q.v.) Was Carried On. On The Site Of An Old Cock Pit Opposite Whitehall In London Was A Block Of Buildings, Used From The 17th Century As Offices By The Treasury And The Privy Council, For Which The Old ...

Cockroach
Cockroach', The Name Applied To Members Of The Blat Tidae, A Family Of Orthopterous Insects, With Flattened Bodies, Long Thread-like Antennae And Shining Leathery Integument. They Are Eminently Tropical But Certain Species Have Become Widely Dis Seminated Through Commerce And Are Now Cosmopolitan. Cock Roaches Are Nocturnal In Habit, Hiding ...

Cocks Comb
Cock's Comb, In Botany, A Cultivated Form Of Celosia Cristata (family Amarantaceae), In Which The Inflorescence Is Monstrous, Forming A Flat "fasciated" Axis Bearing Numerous Small Flowers. The Plant Is A Low-growing Herbaceous Annual, Bearing A Large, Comb-like, Dark Red, Scarlet Or Purplish Mass Of Flowers. Other Species Of Celosia ...

Cockx
Cockx (or Cock), Hieronymus (jerome) (1510 1s70), Flemish Painter And Engraver, Was Born At Antwerp, And In 1545 Was Admitted To The Gild Of St. Luke As A Painter. It Is As An Engraver, However, That He Is Famous, A Number Of Portraits And Subject-pictures By Him, And Reproductions Of ...

Coco De Mer Or
Coco De Mer Or Double Coco-nut, A Palm, Lo Doicea Seycliellarum, A Native Of The Seychelles Islands. The Flowers Are Borne In Enormous Fleshy Spadices, The Male And Female On Distinct Plants. The Fruits, Among The Largest Known, Take Ten Years To Ripen ; They Have A Fleshy And Fibrous ...

Coco Nut Oil And Cake
Coco-nut Oil And Cake. The Bulk Of The World's Supply Of Copra And Coco-nut Oil (the Older Spelling Cocoanut Is Obsolete) Is Derived From The Fruit Of The Variety Cocos Nuci F Era Of The Coco-nut Palm, Which Grows On The Coast Of All Tropical Countries, And Is Extensively Cultivated ...

Cocoa Butter
Cocoa Butter, The Pure Fat Extracted By Pressure From The Ground And Crushed Cocoa Bean. It Is Used In The Manufac Ture Of Confectionery, Cosmetics And Other Toilet Preparations. Cocoa Butter Is Sold Free From Combination With Other Drugs For Treating Skin Irritations Where A Pure Fat Is Necessary. ...

Cocoma Or Cucamas
Cocoma Or Cucamas, A Tribe Of South American Indians Living On The Maranon And Lower Huallaga Rivers, Peru, Speaking Dialects Related To The Tupi-guarani Stock. ...

Coconucan
Coconucan, A Linguistic Stock Or Sub-stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Coconucos, Its Best Known Tribe. The Coconucan Tribes Lived On The Western Slopes Of The Cordillera Central, East Of Popayan In Southern Colombia. Al Though Formerly Regarded As An Independent Linguistic Stock, Rivet Believes The Languages ...

Coconut Palm
Coconut Palm (cocos Nucifera), A Beautiful And Lofty Palm-tree, Growing To A Height Of 6o To Iooft. With A Cylindrical Stem Which Attains A Thickness Of Eft. The Tree Terminates In A Crown Of Graceful Waving Pinnate Leaves. The Leaf, Which May Attain To Loft. In Length, Consists Of A ...

Cocopa
Cocopa, The Yuman Tribe Nearest The Mouth Of The Colorado River, Similar In Customs To The Yuma And Mohave. The Popula Tion, Originally Not Far From 3,000, Has Decreased To About 600, Mostly On Mexican Soil. ...

Cocytus
Cocytus (gr. Ko-kii-tos, Anglicized Ko-si'tus), A Tributary Of The Acheron, Which Flows Into The Ionian Sea About Nom. N. Of The Gulf Of Arta ; Identified With A Tributary Of The Acheron Or Of The Styx, A River In Hades (cp. Virgil's Aeneid, Vi. 132). The Etymology Suggested Is From ...

Cod Liver Oil
Cod-liver Oil (oleum Morrhuae, Or Oleum Jecoris Aselli), The Oil Obtained From The Liver Of The Common Cod (gadus Morrhua). The Usual Process Is To Heat The Fresh, Cleaned Livers By Steam To A Temperature Above That Of Boiling Water, Or, By More Recent Practice, To A Lower Temperature, The ...

Cod
Cod, The Name Given To The Typical Fish Of The Family Gadidae Of The Order Anacanthini, Which Includes Fishes Without Spinous Fin-rays, With No Duct To The Air-bladder, And With The Pelvic Fins Anterior In Position. The Pelvic Fins Are Often Many-rayed, And The Pelvic Bones Are Not Directly Attached ...

Coda
Coda, In Music, A Term For A Passage Which Brings A Move Ment Or A Separate Piece To A Conclusion. (ital. For "tail" ; From The Lat. Cauda.) This Developed From The Simple Chords Of A Cadence Into What Is Often An Elaborate And Important Feature Of A Composition On ...

Code Napoleon
Code Napoleon, The First Code Of The French Civil Law, Known At First As The Code Civil Des Francais, Was Promulgated In Its Entirety By A Law Of The 3oth Ventose In The Year Xii. (march 21, 1804). On Sept. 3, 1807, It Received The Official Name Of Code Napoleon, ...

Code
Code. By Codification Is Now Meant "an Orderly And Author Itative Statement Of The Leading Rules Of Law On A Given Subject" (ilbert), But The Early Collections Of Laws Known As Codes Were Of A Different Character. "the Ancient Codes" (wrote Maine) "were Doubtless Originally Suggested By The Discovery And ...

Codeine
Codeine Occurs Naturally In Opium, Being One Of The Alka Loids (q.v.) Of The Phenanthrene Group And A Derivative Of Mor Phine (q.v.), Retaining In A Modified Form The Characteristic Physi Ological Action Of The Latter. It Crystallizes With One Molecule Of Water, C18h2103n,h20, In Large Translucent Prisms, Melts At ...

Codes And Ciphers
Codes And Ciphers, General Terms Designating The Methods Employed In The Practice Of Cryptography, Or Secret Writing; Often Also Used To Designate The Cryptograms Pro Duced Thereby. In Recent Years, Because Of The Growth Of Govern Ments, The Expansion Of Commerce, And Especially The Remarkable Progress Made In The Art ...

Codex
Codex, The Name Given To The Earliest Forms Of Manuscript (q.v.) In Book Form, I.e., The Collection Of Written Pages Stitched Together Which Replaced The Earlier Roll Of Papyrus And The Wax Tablets (which When Hinged Or Bound Together Formed The First Codex Or Caudex) ; Also The Latin Form ...

Codiaeum
Codiaeum, A Small Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Family Euphorbiaceae. One Species, C. Variegatum, A Native Of Polynesia, Is Cultivated In Greenhouses, Under The Name Of Croton, For Its Variegated Leaves. The Six Species Are Confined To Indomalaya, Polynesia And Australia. ...

Codlin Moth
Codlin Moth (cydia Pomonella), A Small Moth, The Larva (caterpillar) Of Which Is Very Destructive To Apples And Other Fruit. Indigenous To Europe, It Has Spread, Through The Agency Of Com Merce, Wherever The Apple Is Cultivated. The Most Effective Methods Of Control Are By Sack-binding The Tree Trunks And ...

Codrus
Codrus, In Greek Legend, The Last King Of Athens. It Was Prophesied At The Time Of The Dorian Invasion Of Peloponnesus (c. 1068 B.c.) That Only The Death Of Their King At The Enemy's Hands Could Ensure Victory To The Athenians. Devoting Himself To His Country, Codrus Made His Way ...

Coecilia
Coecilia, A Genus Of Limbless, Worm-like Amphibians (see Amphibia), First Described By Linnaeus As A Group Of Snakes, But Now Recognized As Of A Distinct Order Of Amphibia To Which The Names Apoda, Peromela, And Gymnophiona Have Been Given. The Latter Is Now In General Use By Systematists, But The ...

Coeducation
Coeducation Is The Education Of Both Sexes In The Same Classes In An Institution. This Term Has Been Given Several Inter Pretations, The Most Extreme Of Which Is That Girls And Boys "shall Be Taught The Same Things, At The Same Time, In The Same Place, By The Same Faculty, ...

Coefficient
Coefficient, A Term Used In Algebra Originally To Repre Sent Either Of The Two Rational Factors Of A Monomial. For Example, In Its Primitive Meaning, In The Expression Ab Either A Or B Would Be The Coefficient Of The Other, The Two Acting Together With The Same Efficiency. The Meaning ...

Coelenterata
Coelenterata (se-len-tur-a'ta). The Term Coelenter• Ata Is Applied To A Large Group Or Phylum Of Animals Of A Lowly Grade Of Organization. Only Two Types Of Animals Possess A More Simple Structure Than The Coelenterata; Viz., The Sponges And The Protozoa. The Protozoa Are Organisms Whose Body Usually Consists Entirely ...

Coelom And Serous Membranes
Coelom And Serous Membranes. In Human Anatomy The Body-cavity Or Coelom Is Divided Into The Pericar Dium, The Two Pleurae, The Peritoneum And The Two Tunicae Vaginales. The Pericardium Is A Closed Sac In The Thorax And Contains The Heart. Like All The Serous Membranes It Has A Visceral And ...

Coelomata
Coelomata, A Term Used In Zoology To Denote Those Ani Mals In Which The Primary Body Cavity (enteron) Has Become Divided Into An Alimentary Canal And A Coelom (q.v.). This Has Occurred In All Animals Above The Flat-worms (platyhelminthes) . Animals With No Coelom Are Collectively Termed Acoelomata (q.v.). ...

Coelostat
Coelostat, A Mirror Driven By Clock-work So As To Reflect Continually The Same Region Of The Sky Into The Field Of View Of A Fixed Telescope. The Mirror Is Mounted So As To Rotate About An Axis In Its Own Plane Which Points To The Pole Of The Heavens, And ...

Coenwijlf
Coenwijlf (d. 821), King Of Mercia, Successor Of Ecgfrith, Son Of Offa, In 796. In 798 He Invaded Kent, Imprisoned Ead Berht Praen, And Made His Own Brother Cuthred King. On Cuth Red's Death (807) Coenwulf Seems To Have Taken Kent Into His Own Hands. He Abolished The Archbishopric Of ...

Coercion
Coercion, An Application Of Moral Or Physical Compulsion By Which A Person Is Forced To Do Or Refrain From Doing Some Act Apart From His Own Voluntary Motion. Where The Coercion Is Direct Or Positive, I.e., Where The Person Is Compelled By Physical Force To Do An Act Contrary To ...

Coeur Dalene
Coeur D'alene, A Tribe Of North American Indians Of Salishan Stock. The Name Is Said To Have Been Originally That Of A Chief Noted For His Cruelty. ...

Coeur Dalene_2
Coeur D'alene, A City Of Idaho, U.s.a., 33m. E. Of Spokane, At The Head Of Lake Coeur D'alene; The County Seat Of Kootenai County. It Is On Federal Highways Io And 95, And Is Served By The Northern Pacific, The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, And The Inland Empire ...

Coffee Berry
Coffee-berry (rhamnus Californicus), A North Amer Ican Shrub Of The Buckthorn Family (rhamnaceae), Called Also Pigeon-berry And Yerba Del Oso, Native To Canyons And Mountain Slopes In California. It Grows Usually About 5 Ft. High, Bears Oblong, Finely Toothed, Pointed Leaves; Small, Greenish Flowers, And A Round Berry, Black When ...

Coffee
Coffee. This Important And Valuable Article Of Food Is The Produce Chiefly Of Co$ea Arabica, A Rubiaceous Plant Indigenous To Abyssinia, Which, However, As Cultivated Originally, Spread Out Wards From The Southern Parts Of Arabia. The Name Is Probably Derived From The Arabic K'hawah, Although By Some It Has Been ...

Coffer Dam
Coffer-dam, A Dam Formed To Enable Foundations To Be Laid In A Site Which Is Under Water. The Engineer Surrounds The Site With An Embankment In Such Fashion As To Form An En Closure From Which The Water Is Excluded. Where The Depth Of Water Is Small And The Current ...

Coffer
Coffer, In Architecture, A Sunk Panel In A Ceiling Or Vault; Also A Casket Or Chest In Which Jewels Or Precious Goods Are Kept, And, If Of Large Dimensions, Clothes. The Marriage Coffers In Italy Were Of Ten Richly Carved And Gilded, And Sometimes Painted By Great Artists. (see Chest.) ...

Coffeyville
Coffeyville, A City Of Montgomery County, In South Eastern Kansas, U.s.a., On The Verdigris River, Near The Southern Boundary Of The State. It Is On Federal Highway 166, And Is Served By The Missouri Pacific, The Santa Fe, The Missouri-kan Sas-texas, And The Union Traction (electric) Railways. The Popu Lation ...

Coffin
Coffin, The Receptacle In Which A Corpse Is Confined (lat. Cophinus, A Coffer, Chest Or Basket, But Not "coffin" In Its Present Sense). The Greeks And Romans Disposed Of Their Dead Both By Burial And By Cremation. Greek Coffins Varied In Shape, Being In The Form Of An Urn, Or ...

Cog I
Cog. (i) A Broadly Built, Round-shaped Ship, Used As A Trader And Also As A Ship Of War Till The 15th Century (m.e. Cogge, Cf. O.fr. Cogue, From Which "cock-boat" Is Derived) . (2) A Tooth In A Series Of Teeth, On The Circumference Of A Wheel, Which Works With ...

Cogers Hall
Cogers' Hall, A London Tavern Debating Society. In Stituted In 1755 At The White Bear Inn, Fleet Street, And Moved About 185o To Shoe Lane; In 1871 It Migrated To The Barley Mow Inn, Salisbury Square, E.c., And Has Since Moved To The Cannon Inn, Cannon Street, E.c. The Accepted ...

Cognac
Cognac, A Town Of South-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Charente, On The Left Bank Of The River Charente, 23 M. W.n.w. Of Angouleme. Pop. (1931) 16,452. The Streets Of The Old Town Are Very Narrow, But The Newer Parts Have Open Spaces Such As The ...

Cogne
Cogne, A Village, Province Of Aosta, Italy, From Which Town It Is 16m. Due South By Road (9m. Direct). Pop. (1921) 575 (of Commune, 1,625). It Lies At The Northern Foot Of The Gran Para Diso And Is A Favourite Summer Resort. Victor Emanuel Ii. Formed A Shooting Reserve Here ...

Cognition
Cognition Means "knowing," In The Widest Sense Of The Term. In Psychology It Is Used To Denote One Of The Three Ultimate Functions Or Processes Of Consciousness, The Other Being Feeling And Conation (or Willing). Cognition Includes Every Mental Proc Ess That Can Be Described As An Experience Of Knowing ...

Cognizance
Cognizance, Knowledge, Notice, Especially Judicial Notice, The Right Of Trying Or Considering A Case Judicially, The Exercise Of Jurisdiction By A Court Of Law. In Heraldry A "cognizance" Is An Emblem, Badge Or Device, Used As A Distinguishing Mark By The Body Of Retainers Of A Royal Or Noble House. ...

Cohen
Cohen (hebrew For "priest"), A Jewish Family Name, Imply Ing Descent From Aaron And The Hebrew Priests (cohanim). Many Families Claiming Such Descent Are, However, Not Named Cohen. Other Forms Of The Name Are Cohn, Cowen, Kahn, Kogan, Etc. See J. Jacobs, Jewish Encyclopaedia, Iv. 144. For Cohen=episcopus, See H. ...

Coherer
Coherer, A Device By Means Of Which A Feeble Oscillating Electric Current May Be Detected By A Galvanometer (q.v.) Or Tele Phone (q.v.), The Essential Characteristics Being That The Current Through The Coherer Is Concentrated At A Point And That The Re Sistance (see Resistance, Measurement Of) Of The Material ...

Cohoes
Cohoes, A Manufacturing City Of Albany County, New York, U.s.a., 9m. N. Of Albany, On The Hudson River At The Mouth Of The Mohawk. It Is Served By The Delaware And Hudson And The New York Central Railways, And By The State Barge Canal. The Popu Lation In 1920 Was ...

Cohort
Cohort (lat. Cohors), Originally A Place Enclosed; In The Roman Army, The Name Of A Unit Of Infantry. The Troops Of The First Grade, The Legions, Were Divided Into Cohorts, Of Which There Were Ten In Each Legion : The Cohort Thus Contained 600 Men. Among The Troops Of The ...

Coif
Coif, A Close-fitting Covering For The Head. Originally It Was The Name Given To A Head-covering Worn In The Middle Ages, Tied Like A Night-cap Under The Chin, And Worn Out Of Doors By Both Sexes; This Was Later Worn By Men As A Kind Of Night-cap Or Skull-cap. The ...

Coimbatore
Coimbatore, City And District, British India, In The Ma Dras Presidency. The City Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The Noyil River, 305 M. From Madras By The South Indian Railway. In 1931 It Had A Population Of 95,198. The City Stands 1,437 Ft. Above Sea-level, Is Healthy, And ...

Coimbra
Coimbra, Portuguese City On The North Bank Of The River Mondego, 115m. N.n.e. Of Lisbon, On The Lisbon-oporto Railway. Pop. (1930,27,343. Coimbra Derives Its Present Importance From The Fact That It Is The Seat Of The Only University In The Kingdom—an Institution Which Was Originally Established At Lis Bon In ...

Coin
Coin, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Malaga, 18m. By Rail W.s.w. Of Malaga. Pop. (193o) 15,03 2. Coin, On The North Slope Of The Sierra De Mijas, Is The Centre Of A Rich Agricul Tural District. It Exports Large Quantities Of Oranges, Lemons, Grapes And Raisins, ...

Coinage Offences
Coinage Offences. The Coinage Of Money Is In All States A Prerogative Of The Sovereign Power ; Consequently Any Infringement Of That Prerogative Is Always Severely Punished, As Being An Offence Likely To Interfere With The Well-being Of The State, And In Fact Was At One Time High Treason In ...

Coin_2
Coin. This Is Properly The Term For A Wedge-shaped Die Used For Stamping Money, And So Transferred To The Money So Stamped; Hence A Piece Of Money. The Form "quoin" Is Used For The Exter Nal Angle Of A Building (see Qvo1ns), And "coign," Also A Project Ing Angle, Survives ...

Coir
Coir, The Outer Covering Of The Husk Of The Coconut; An Exceedingly Strong Fibrous Material Which Has Many Uses In Industry, Notably In The Manufacture Of Coarse Mats And Brushes. The Name Is From The Malay Kayar, Cord, Kayaru, To Be Twisted. Very Large Quantities Of Coir Are Exported From ...

Coking And High Temperature
Coke, Coking And High Temperature Carbonization. The Product Obtained By Strongly Heating Coal Out Of Contact With The Air Until The Volatile Constituents Are Driven Off Is Called Coke. It Consists Essentially Of Carbon, The So-called "fixed Carbon," Together With The Incombustible Matters Or Ash Contained In The Coal From ...

Col
Col, In Physical Geography, Generally Any Distinct Depression Upon A High Water-parting Offering Easy Passage From One Valley To Another. There Are Numerous Cols On The Franco-italian Frontier, E.g., The Little St. Bernard (2,188f T.) Which Carries The Road From The Dora Baltea To The Upper Isere. The Col (fr. ...

Colchagua
Colchagua, A Province Of Central Chile, Bounded N. By Santiago, E. By Argentina, S. By Talca, And W. By The Pacific. Its Area, Before Annexations Made In 1928, Was 3,851 Sq.m.; Pop. (192o) 166,342- Pop. (1930), Including That Of The Added Terri Tory, Is About 295,971. Extending Across The Great ...

Colchester
Colchester, Municipal Borough, Essex, England; 52 M. North-east From London By L.n.e.r., On The River Colne, 12 M. From The Open Sea. Pop. (1931) 48,607. The Roman Town, Colonia Victricensis Camalodunum (or Camulodunurn), Was Founded By Claudius, Soon After The Roman Conquest, As A Municipality Of Discharged Roman Soldiers. Under ...

Colchicum
Colchicum, The Meadow Saffron, Or Autumn Crocus (col Chicum Autumnale), A Perennial Plant Of The Family Liliaceae, Found Wild In Rich, Moist Meadow-land In England And Ireland, In Middle And Southern Europe And In The Swiss Alps. It Has Pale-purple Flowers, Rarely More Than Three In Number; The Perianth Is ...

Colchis
Colchis, In Ancient Geography, A Nearly Triangular District Of Asia Minor, At The Eastern Extremity Of The Black Sea, Bounded On The North By The Caucasus, Which Separated It From Asiatic Sarmatia, East By Iberia, South By The Montes Moschici, Armenia And Part Of Pontus, And West By The Euxine. ...

Colcothar
Colcothar (adapted In Romanic Languages From Arabic Golgotar, Which Was Probably A Corruption Of The Gr. Xlaucaveos From Xaxecos, Copper, Aveos, Flower, I.e., Copper Sulphate), A Name Given To The Brownish-red Ferric Oxide Formed In The Preparation Of Fuming Sulphuric (nordhausen) Acid By Distilling Ferrous Sul Phate. It Is Used ...

Cold
Cold, Subjectively The Sensation Which Is Excited By Con Tact With A Substance Whose Temperature Is Lower Than The Normal ; Objectively A Quality Or Condition Of Material Bodies Which Gives Rise To That Sensation. Whether Cold, In The Objective Sense, Was To Be Regarded As A Positive Quality Or ...

Coldstream
Coldstream, Police Burgh And Parish, Berwickshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931), 1,922. It Is Situated On The North Bank Of The Tweed, Here Spanned By John Smeaton's Fine Bridge Of Five Arches, Erected In 1763-1766, I 3 2 M. South-west Of Berwick By The L. N. E. R. The Station Is At ...

Coldwater
Coldwater, A City Near The Southern Boundary Of Michi Gan, U.s.a., Surrounded By Beautiful Lakes; The County Seat Of Branch County. It Is On Federal Highways 27 And 112, And Is Served By The New York Central Railway System. The Population In 1920 Was 6,114; 1930 It Was 6,735. It ...

Cold_2
Cold. The Common Cold (known Technically As Acute Co Ryza) Is An Acute Catarrhal Inflammation Of The Upper Respiratory Tract, Caused By Infection With Bacteria. The Most Careful Bacter Iological Studies Have Failed To Demonstrate A Single Specific Germ As The Cause Of This Disease ; But The Contagious Character ...

Colin Campbell Clyde
Clyde, Colin Campbell, Baron Brit Ish Soldier, Was Born At Glasgow On Oct. 20, 1792. He Received His Education At The Glasgow High School, And When Only 16 Years Of Age Obtained An Ensigncy In The 9th Foot. He Fought Under Sir Arthur Wellesley At Vimiera, Took Part In The ...

Colley Cibber
Cibber, Colley (1671-1757), English Actor And Drama Tist, Was Born In London On Nov. 6, 1671, The Eldest Son Of Caius Gabriel Cibber, The Sculptor. Sent In 1682 To The Free School At Grantham, Lincolnshire, The Boy Distinguished Himself By An Apti Tude For Writing Verse. He Was Removed From ...

Commerce And Communications China
China - Production, Commerce And Communications Even On The Most Generous Estimate Of Industrial Prospects, China Will Remain A Preponderantly Agricultural Country. The Fu Ture Relationship, However, Of Agriculture And Manufacturing In Dustry Is A Matter Of Great Interest. Development Of Electric Power And Improvement Of Transport Would Render Possible ...

Commissions Of Enquiry
Commissions Of Enquiry The History Of Ameliorative Legislation In Respect Of The Coal Mines And Miners Of Great Britain May Be Said To Date From The Year 1778, When A Law Was Passed Which Enacted That The State Of Life-slavery To Which The Miners Of Scotland Were Subjected Should Come ...

Conditions In Holland And
Conditions In Holland And Belgium A Large Part Of Holland And Some Portions Of Belgium Are Below The Normal Sea Level And Are Protected From Inundation By Artificial Embankments (dikes) Or By Narrow Belts Of Sand Dunes. The Foreshore Works On The Coast Of Holland And Belgium, Although Of Great ...

Constitutions Of Clarendon
Clarendon, Constitutions Of, A Body Of Eng Lish Laws Issued At Clarendon In 1164, By Which Henry Ii. Endeav Oured To Settle The Relations Between Church And State. They Pur Ported To Declare The Usages On The Subject In The Reign Of Henry I. They Were Never Accepted In Full ...

Consumption And Production Costs
Consumption And Production Costs The International Geological Congress Which Met In Toronto, Canada, In The Year 1913, Made An Estimate Of The World's Re Sources Of Coal, For Which Purpose They Took 'ft. As The Minimum Workable Thickness Of Seams, Down To A Depth Of 4,000ft. From The Surface, And ...

Cotton
Cotton The Finishing Of Cotton Fabrics Was Originally The Final Operation Performed On The Fabrics To Make Them Ready For Sale. In Its Modern Significance, Finishing Comprises A Large And Diverse Range Of Processes Intended To Produce In The Fabric A Desired Appear Ance Or Feel ; And The Machines ...

Crude
Crude, A Tribal Name Used In Both A Special And A General Sense. (i) It Was The Name Given By The Russians To Certain Estonian Tribes With Whom They Came In Contact As They Spread Gradually Over Their Present Empire. It Would Seem That The Northern Chudes Are The Vepsas. ...

Daniel Nicolas Chodowiecki
Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicolas German Genre Painter And Engraver Of Polish Descent, Was Born At Danzig On Oct. 13 1726, And Died At Berlin On Feb. 7 180i. Left An Orphan At An Early Age, He Devoted Himself To The Practice Of Miniature Painting, The Elements Of Which His Father Had ...

De Witt Clinton
Clinton, De Witt (1769-1828), American Political Leader, Was Born On March 2, 1769, At Little Britain, N.y. His Father, James Clinton (1736-1812), Served As A Captain Of Pro Vincial Troops In The French And Indian War, And As A Brigadier General In The American Army In The Revolutionary War. De ...

Defence Organization
Defence Organization A Defended Port (coast Fortress) Is Under A Fortress Commander Who Arranges The Co-operation With Navy And Air Force. A Large Place Is Divided Into Sections, Each Under A Commander In Charge Of All Troops In His Section. The Coast Artillery Is Divided Into Groups Of Batteries, Called ...

Diego Clemencin
Clemencin, Diego (1765-1834), Spanish Scholar And Politician, Was Born At Murcia, And Educated There At The Colegio De San Fulgencio. In 1807 He Became Editor Of The Gaceta De Madrid, And In The Following Year Was Condemned To Death By Murat For Publishing A Patriotic Article ; He Fled To ...

Distribution And Export Coal
Coal : Its Sale, Distribution And Export An Attempt Was Made By The British Coal Mining Organization Committee In The Year 1915 To Arrive At Some Close Approximation Of The Proportional Distribution Of The Coal Output Of The United Kingdom, And In Doing So They Made A Comparison As Between ...

Domenico Cimarosa
Cimarosa, Domenico (1749-18o1), Italian Musical Composer, Was Born At Aversa, In The Kingdom Of Naples, Dec. 17, 1749. His Parents Were Poor, But Anxious To Give Their Son A Good Education, And Of Ter Removing To Naples They Sent Him To A Free School Connected With One Of The Monasteries ...

Domenico Cirillo
Cirillo, Domenico Italian Physician, Botanist, And Revolutionist, Was Appointed As A Young Man To A Botanical Professorship, And Later Travelled To France And England, Where He Was Elected A Fellow Of The Royal Society. On His Return To Naples He Was Appointed Successively To The Chairs Of Practical And Theoretical ...

Dukes Of Clarence
Clarence, Dukes Of. The Early History Of This Eng Lish Title Is Identical With That Of The Family Of Clare, Earls Of Gloucester, Who Are Sometimes Called Earls Of Clare, Of Which Word Clarence Is A Later Form. The First Duke Of Clarence Was Lionel Of Antwerp (see Below), Third ...

Edward Daniel Clarke
Clarke, Edward Daniel English Mineralogist And Traveller, Was Born At Willingdon, Sussex, On June 5, 1769, And Educated At Tonbridge And Jesus College, Cam Bridge. In 1799-1803 He Made An Extended Tour Through The Con Tinent Of Europe And Afterwards To Egypt And Palestine. After The Capitulation Of Alexandria, Clarke ...

Edward Hyde Clarendon
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl Of (1609 1674), English Statesman And The Historian Of The Great Rebellion, Son Of Henry Hyde Of Dinton, Wiltshire, Was Born On Feb. 18, 1609. He Entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, In 1622 (having Been Refused A Demyship At Magdalen College), And Graduated B.a. In 1626. ...

Egyptian Chronology
Egyptian - Chronology. The Chronology Of Ancient Egypt Has Been Ascertained By Means Of The Various Statements Of Classical Authors, By Regnal Years And The Numerous Other Indications On The Monuments, By The Results Of Close Archaeological Study, And The Ascertaining Of Certain Fixed Astronomical Data, Checked By Comparison With ...

Emile Claus
Claus, Emile (1849-1924), Belgian Painter, Was Born At Vive Saint-tloi, Flanders, On Sept. 27, 1849. Receiving Early Training At The Antwerp Academy Of Fine Arts, Claus Began As A Traditionalist. Soon, However, He Came Under The Influence Of Certain French Painters Who Had Determined To Break From The Rut, And ...

Enrico Cialdini
Cialdini, Enrico (1811-1892), Italian S•idier, Politi Cian And Diplomatist, Was Born In Castelvetro, Modena. In 1831 He Took Part In The Insurrection At Modena, Fleeing Afterwards To Paris, Whence He Proceeded To Spain To Fight Against The Carlists. Returning To Italy In 1848, He Commanded A Regiment At The Battle ...

Ernest Louis Octave Courtot
Cissey, Ernest Louis Octave Courtot De (1810-1882), French General, Was Born At Paris On Sept. 23, 181o, And After Passing Through St. Cyr, Entered The Army In 1832. He Served In Algeria And In The Crimean War, And Became General Of Division In 1862. When The Franco-german War Broke Out ...

Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni
Chladni, Ernst Florens Friedrich 1827), German Physicist, Was Born At Wittenberg, On Nov. 3o, 1756. He Was Educated In Law But Left It To Study Science After The Death Of His Father. Inspired By The Works Of Euler And Ber Noulli, Chladni Became A Pioneer In Experimental Sound. He Investigated ...

Ernst Julius Cohen
Cohen, Ernst Julius (1869— ), Dutch Chemist, Was Born At Amsterdam On March 7, 1869. He Studied Chemistry Under Arrhenius At Stockholm, Moissan At Paris, And Van T'hoff At Amsterdam; He Became Assistant To The Latter In The University Chemical Laboratories At Amsterdam In 1893 And In 1902 He Was ...

Etienne Claviers
Claviers, Etienne 735-1793 ) , French Financier And Politician, Was Born In Geneva On Jan. 27, 1735. He Was A Political Refugee In England, And In 1789 Went To France, Where He Assisted Mirabeau On The Courrier De Provence And In The Prep Aration Of His Speeches. Claviere Also Published ...

Etienne Clementel
Clementel, Etienne (1862-1936), French Politician, Was Born On March 29, 1862, At Riom And Educated There. He Was Elected A Deputy In 1898 And Became Minister For The Colonies In Rouvier's Cabinet In 1905, Afterwards Occupying Ministerial Posts In Departments Where His Knowledge Of Economics Could Find Full Play, The ...

Etienne Franc Ois Choiseul
Choiseul, Etienne Franc Ois, Duc De (1719 1785), French Statesman, Was The Eldest Son Of Francois Joseph De Choiseul, Marquis De Stainville (17oo-177o), And Bore In Early Life The Title Of Comte De Stainville. Born On June 28, 1719, He Entered The Army, And During The War Of The Austrian ...

European Countries
European Countries France.—the Number Of Civil Servants In 1921 Was 896,000, Not Including Workers On The State Railways. These Numbers Can Not Be Compared With Those Given For Great Britain, Because In France They Include Judicial And Local Government Officials, And Teachers. The Organic Laws Of 1875 Empower The President ...

Extinct Bats
Extinct Bats Several Of The Earlier Extinct Species Appear To Be Related To The Rhinolophidae. Remains Of Pteropodidae Belonging To Exist Ing Genera Have Been Found In The Warmer Parts Of The Eastern Hemisphere; And An Extinct Generic Type, Archaeopteropus, Has Been Obtained From The Miocene Lignite Of Italy, Which ...