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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Interlaced Arches
Interlaced Arches. Arches Which Span Twice The Width Of The Space Between The Piers Of An Arcade, So That Each Arch Crosses Two Others. In Some Cases The Arches Interlace, Their Mouldings Crossing Alternately Over And Under Those Of The Other Arches ; In Some Cases The Whole Is On ...

Interlaken
Interlaken, A Swiss Town (1,864 Ft.) In The Canton Of Berne, Situated On The Flat Plain (bodeli) Between The Lakes Of Brienz (e.) And Of Thun (w.), And Connected By Steamer, As Well As By Railway (i 7 2 M.) With The Town Of Thun. It Is Built On The ...

Interloper
Interloper, One Who Interferes In Affairs In Which He Has No Concern. This Word, With The Verbal Form "to Interlope," First Appears At The End Of The I6th And Beginning Of The 17th Century In Connection With The Interference Of Unauthorized Persons In The Trade Monopoly Of The Russia Company ...

Intermezzo
Intermezzo. An Interlude Or Entr'acte Of A Light And Pleasing Character Serving As A Contrast Between The Acts Of A More Serious Drama Or Tragedy, And, In Its Developed Form, Con Tinuing As An Independent Piece In This Manner Throughout The Whole Work, Two Entirely Independent Works, One Serious And ...

Interna Tional Institute Of
Intellectual Co-operation, Interna Tional Institute Of. In Sept. 1921 The League Of Na Tions, On The Proposal Of M. Leon Bourgeois, Added To Its Existing Technical Committees An International Committee On Intellectual Co-operation, Made Up Of Distinguished Scholars Chosen First From 12, Afterwards From 14 Different Countries. Its Membership In ...

Internal Anatomy
Internal Anatomy The Internal Organs Of An In Sect, Like Those Of Other Arthro Pods, Lie In A Common Body-cavity Or Haemocoele Which Contains Blood And Is In Free Communica Tion With And Forms Part Of The General Circulatory System. Nervous System And Sense Organs.—the Central Nervous System Consists Typically ...

Internal Combustion Engines
Internal Combustion Engines. An Internal Combustion Engine Is One In Which Energy Is Directly Translated Into Mechanical Power By Causing An Explosion To Take Place Be Hind A Piston. Professor Andrade Has Epigrammatically Described This As "putting The Furnace Into The Cylinder." An Explosion Is An Event Of So Sudden ...

International Bureaux
International Bureaux. The Beginnings Of The International Movement May Be Traced Back For More Than A Century. In 1823, For The First Time, Scientific Congresses Were Held In Germany, To Which Representatives Of Other Countries Were Invited. France, England And The United States Soon Followed This Example. The Need Was ...

International Chamber Of Commerce
International Chamber Of Commerce, An Important International Institution Established In 192o At A Meeting Of The Chief Business Interests Of Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy And The United States, And Subsequently Joined By 40 Other Nations, To Promote The Development Of International Trade, To Remove Or Mitigate The Effects Of ...

International Date Line
International Date Line. If A Voyager Travel Eastward To The Antipodes And Thus "anticipate The Sun," His Timing Will Be 12 Hours In Advance; If Another Travel Westward, Then His Will Be As Much In Arrear. There Will Thus Be A Differ Ence Of 24 Hours When They Meet. To ...

Introduction To Insurance
Insurance, Introduction To. Insurance Is The Practical Device By Which Civilized Man Protects Himself Against The Contingencies Of Life. He Has For Centuries Realized The Regu Larity With Which The Law Of Average Operates When Great Num Bers Are Involved And Has Employed His Knowledge To Provide By Insurance Against ...

Jacques Inaudi
Inaudi, Jacques ), Italian Calculating Prodigy, Was Born At Onorato, Piedmont, On The 15th Of October, 1867. When Between Seven And Eight Years Old, At Which Time He Was Employed In Herding Sheep, He Already Exhibited An Extraor Dinary Aptitude For Mental Calculation. His Powers Attracted The Notice Of Various ...

James Dickson Innes
Innes, James Dickson (1887-1914), English Land Scape Painter Was Born At Llanelly (carmarthen), On Feb. 27, 1887. His Mother Was Of Catalonian Descent. He Studied Art At The Slade School (1905-08) And Exhibited For The First Time At The New English Art Club In 1907. He Travelled In France And ...

James Ingram
Ingram, James English Antiquarian And Anglo-saxon Scholar, Was Born Near Salisbury On Dec. 21, 1774. From 1803 To 18o8 He Was Professor Of Anglo-saxon At Oxford, And In 1824 Was Made President Of Trinity College And D.d. He Was The Pre-eminent Anglo-saxon Scholar Of His Time. He Died On Sept. ...

James Lyle Mackay Inchcape
Inchcape, James Lyle Mackay, 1st Earl (1852-1932), British Shipowner, Was Born At Arbroath, Forfar Shire, On Sept. 11, 1852, And Educated There And At Elgin. In 1874 He Went To India To Join The Firm Of Messrs. Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Company, Calcutta, Of Which He Ultimately Became Senior Partner; He ...

Java
Java The Old Hindu Kingdom Of Taruma In Western Java Is Known Only By Inscriptions Of 4th And 5th Century Date. The Earliest Architectural Remains Are Those Of The Dieng Plateau, Where In The Seventh Or Early Eighth Century Stone Was For The First Time Em Ployed In Java As ...

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (178o 1867), French Painter, Was Born At Montauban, On Aug. 29, 1780. His Father Has Described Himself As Sculpteur En Pldtre. In Consequence Of The Son's Talent For Music—the Lad's Perform Ance Of A Concerto Of Viotti's Was Applauded At The Theatre Of Toulouse—his Father At ...

Jean Ingelow
Ingelow, Jean English Poet And Novelist, Was Born At Boston, Lincs., On March 17, 182o, And Died In London On July 20, 1897. Jean Ingelow, Who Was The Daughter Of A Boston Banker, Is Famous For One Poem, "high Tide On The Coast Of Lincolnshire"; Many Of Her Ballads And ...

John Hyrcanus I
John Hyrcanus I., High Priest Of The Jews From 135 To 105 B.c., Was The Youngest Son Of Simon Maccabaeus. In 137 B.c. He, With His Brother Judas, Commanded The Force Which Repelled The In Vasion Of Judaea Led By Cendebeus, The General Of Antiochus Vii. Sidetes. On The Assassination ...

John Hyrcanus Ii
John Hyrcanus Ii., High Priest From 78 To 40 B.c., Was The Eldest Son Of Alexander Jannaeus By His Wife Alexandra, And Was Thus A Grandson Of The Preceding. When His Father Died In 78, He Was Appointed High Priest, And On His Mother's Death In 69 He Claimed The ...

John Kells Ingram
Ingram, John Kells (1823-1907), Irish Scholar And Economist, Was Born In Co. Donegal, Ireland, On July 7, 1823, And Educated At Newry School And Trinity College, Dublin. Elected Fellow Of His College In 1846, He Became Successively Pro Fessor Of Oratory And English Literature (1852-66), Regius Pro Fessor Of Greek ...

Kaoru Inouye
Inouye, Kaoru, Marquess , Japanese Statesman, Was Born In 1835, A Samurai Of The Choshu Fief. He Was A Friend Of His Fellow-clansman Prince Ito, And They Visited Eng Land Together In 1863, Serving As Common Sailors During The Voyage. At That Time All Travel Abroad Was Forbidden On Pain ...

Karl Leberecht Immermann
Immermann, Karl Leberecht German Dramatist And Novelist, Was Born On April 24, 1796 At Magdeburg, The Son Of A Government Official. His Legal Studies At Halle Were Interrupted By The Call To Arms And By The Campaign Of 1815, After Which He Returned To The University. He Was Referen Dar ...

Kusana
Kusana Assuming The Date Of A.d. 120 For The Accession Of Kaniska, We Can Safely Say That The First Century And A Half Of The Chris Tian Era Represents The Most Critical Period In The History Of Art In India, The Second To The Fourth Century That Of Highest Achieve ...

Later Andhra
Later Andhra School Of Amaravati.—the Reliefs Of Amaravati, Dating From The Close Of The Second Century A.d., Once Adorned A Great Stupa, With The Largest And Most Richly Decorated Stone Railing Ever Constructed Surrounding It. This Stupa Was One Of Numerous Buddhist Monuments Erected Or Enlarged By The Later Andhra ...

Later Pre Maurya
Later Pre-maurya Vessel Or Vase Of Plenty (purna Kalasa) Of India, The Former Sig Nificantly Spoken Of By Heuzy As The "merveilleux Symbole Qui Etait Comme Le Sainte-graal De 1'epopee Chaldeenne," And Both Of Importance In Connection With The Origins Of The Grail Cult. To These May Be Added Similarities ...

Latin Inscriptions
Latin Inscriptions Latin Inscriptions May Be Classified On Much The Same Lines As Greek; But Certain Broad Distinctions May Be Drawn At The Outset. They Are Generally More Standardized As To Form And As To Content, Not Only In Rome And Italy, But Also Throughout The Provinces Of The Roman ...

Law Of Inebriety
Inebriety, Law Of. The Legal Relations To Which In Ebriety Gives Rise Are Partly Civil And Partly Criminal. I. Civil Capacity.-the Law Of England As To The Civil Capac Ity Of The Drunkard Is Practically Identified With And Has Passed Through Substantially The Same Stages Of Development As The Law ...

Light Oil Or Petrol
Light Oil (or Petrol) Engines Few Inventions In The Short Space Of A Single Generation Have Effected Such Profound Changes In Human Life As The Small High Speed Light Oil Internal Combustion Engine, More Familiarly Known As The "petrol Motor." Not Only Has It Completely Revolutionized Land Transport, But It ...

Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturing Industries Cotton And Jute.—on The Basis Of The Number Of People Who Are Employed Hand-loom Weaving Is Still By Far The Greatest Of Indian Non-agricultural Industries. The Census Of 1921 Found Very Nearly 2,000,000 Hand-looms At Work, And The Actual Number Was Probably Considerably Greater. The Indian Industrial Commission ...

Mediaeval From About
Mediaeval (from About 850 Onwards) The Mediaeval Art Again Falls Into Three Main Divisions, Corre Sponding To The Geographical Classification Of The Architecture As Nagara (northern And Eastern), Vesara (south Central And West Ern) And Dravida (southern). The Character Of Indian Art Has Now Definitely Changed And Hardened ; The ...

Miall Fig
Miall Fig. 3 -front View Of Head Of Cockroachfig. 3 -front View Of Head Of Cockroach Ened Cuticle Or Outermost Layer Of The Integument Or Body-wall. It Is Composed Of A Substance Termed Chitin And Is Produced By The Hypodermis Or Cellular Layer Of The Integument. The Skeleton Remains Membranous ...

Military Intelligence
Intelligence, Military. Under This Designation May Be Considered The Work Of Obtaining, Collating, Interpreting And Distributing Information, In Peace And War, About Foreign Powers, The Countering Of Foreign Powers' Efforts To Obtain In Telligence, And The Organization Which Performs These Duties. In Formation As To Actual Or Potential Enemies, Allies ...

Ministry Of
Ministry Of.) The Path To General Control.—by Requisitioning Practi Cally The Whole Output Of The Engineering Industry And Making Use Of Nearly All The Iron And Steel Obtainable For Making Munitions, The Ministry Of Munitions Virtually Suppressed Private Trade And Ignored Civilian Needs. The Army Contracts Department Of The War ...

Mohammedan Law
Mohammedan Law To Mohammedans Much Of Mohammedan Law Is At Least As Sacred As Are The Texts Of The Shastras To Hindus. The Sources Of Mohammedan Law, Its Growth And Progress, And How It Has Come To Divide Into Two Schools And Some Sub-schools Are Set Out In The Article ...

Mohammedan Period
Mohammedan Period With Northern India Disrupted By The Continual Struggles Of Its Warring Rajput Chiefs, And Southern India Torn By Its Rival Dravidian Principalities, All Semblance Of Unity In The Country Had Vanished Before The Sword Of Islam Was Unsheathed. Warnings Of The New Danger Came, And Passed Unheeded; For ...

Murrough Obrien Inchiquin
Inchiquin, Murrough O'brien, 1st Earl Of (c. 1614-1674), Irish Soldier And Statesman, Was The Son Of Der Mod O'brien, 5th Baron Inchiquin (d. 1624). He Belonged To A Great Family Which Traced Its Descent To Brian Boroimhe, King Of Ireland, Members Of Which Were Always To The Forefront In Irish ...

Natural Gas
Natural Gas. ...

New Industries
New Industries Chemistry Has Introduced Many New Notes Into Industry. The Photographic Industry Is An Example Of One Founded On A Single Chemical Fact, Namely, That Halogen Salts Of Silver Turn Dark In The Light. Unpromising Raw Materials Have Been Made The Basis Of New Industries Such As The Manufacture ...

Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev
Ignatiev, Nicholas Pavlovich, Count (183 2 1908), Russian Diplomatist, Was Born At St. Petersburg (lenin Grad) On Jan. 29, 1832. At 17 He Became An Officer Of The Guards. His Diplomatic Career Began At The Congress Of Paris, After The Crimean War, Where He Took An Active Part As Military ...

Or Insomnia
Insomnia, Or The Inability To Sleep Adequately. Is A Com Mon Enough Symptom In Modern Life And Varies Greatly In Degree. Our Understanding Of Its Underlying Causes Is Often Rendered The More Difficult Because Of Our Lack Of Knowledge Concerning The Exact Physiology Of Normal Sleep. Three Varieties Of Insomnia ...

Or San Bonifacio De
Ibague, Or San Bonifacio De Ibague, A City Of Colombia And Capital Of The Department Of Tolima, About 6om. W. Of Bogota And 18m. N.w. Of The Nevado De Tolima. Pop. (1900) Est. 13,000, Ibague Is Built On A Beautiful Plain Between The Chipalo And Combeima, Small Affluents Of The ...

Order Ii Trachylina
Order Ii. Trachylina The Trachylina Are An Assemblage Of Hydrozoa Which Differ Sufficiently From Any Of The Hydroida Or Siphonophora To Warrant Their Inclusion In A Separate Group. Among The Trachylina The Medusa Is The Dominant Form, And Many Reach A Considerable Size (e.g., Io X 3cm.). In Accordance With ...

Order Iii Siphonophora
Order Iii. Siphonophora The Siphonophora Constitute One Of The Most Interesting Groups Of The Animal Kingdom, Since They Illustrate The Lengths To Which An Organism May Go In The Direction Of Stringing Together A Num Ber Of Different Kinds Of Individuals In A Single Chain. In Scien Tific Terminology They ...

Pablo Iglesias Posse
Iglesias Posse, Pablo (1850-1925), Spanish Poli Tician Was Born At El Ferrol On Oct. 15, 185o. On The Death Of His Father He Was Placed In A Foundling Asylum Where After Repeated Attempts At Escape He Remained For Some Years. In 1871 He Became Secretary Of The International Proletarian Federa ...

Paints And Varnishes Wax
Early American Period; Chinese; Japanese; Modern; Wood Finishes, Paints And Varnishes; Wax Finish And Painting. ...

Paints And Varnishes Wood
Wood Finishes, Paints And Varnishes Wood, Which Is Both The Most Available And The Most Easily Workable Of Structural Materials In The Majority Of The Habitable Regions Of The Globe, Has From The Earliest Times Been Extensively Utilized. When, In The Course Of Cultural Development, The Sense For Beauty Was ...

Paul Hymans
Hymans, Paul ), Belgian Statesman, Was Born At Ixelles, Brussels, On March 23, 1865. He Became A Bar Rister In 1885, And From 1898 To 1914 Was Professor Of Compara Tive Parliamentary History At Brussels University. From 1900 He Was Deputy For Brussels And Soon Became The Liberal Leader. After ...

Paul Ilg
Ilg, Paul ), Swiss Poet And Dramatist, Was Born At Salenstein (thurgau) On March 14, 1875. He Was Engaged In Business Down To 1899, Since When He Has Been An Author And Editor. Among His Chief Novels Are Der Lebensdrang (1906), Der Landstortzer (1909), Das Menscjilein Matthias (1913), Der Starke ...

Peoples Of India
Peoples Of India The Discoveries At Mohenjo-daro Include The Skeletal Remains Of A Dolichocephalic (long-headed) People, Who, In Sir John Marshall's Opinion, "may Reasonably Be Assumed To Have Belonged To The Great Long-headed Race Of Southern Asia And Europe To Which The Name `mediterranean' Is Commonly Applied" (times, Jan. 4, ...

Pierre Le Moyne Iberville
Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur D' (1661 1706), French-canadian Soldier And Colonizer Of Louisiana, Was Born In Montreal, Canada, On July 16, 1661. He Was One Of Eleven Sons Of Charles Le Moyne, All Of Whom Performed Dis Tinguished Service In The Extension Of The French Empire In America. The ...

Polymorphism
Polymorphism In The Articles Coelenterata And Anthozoa, And In Accounts Of The Groups Of Hydrozoa Already Dealt With In The Present Article, References Will Be Found To The Phenomena Known As Polymorphism And Alternation Of Generations (metagenesis). Since These Phenomena Are Aspects Of One And The Same Thing, And Are ...

Position Of Shop Stewards
Position Of Shop Stewards Works Committees And Councils In Great Britain.— Works Committees May Be Of Two Main Kinds (a) Committees Of Workpeople Or Their Representatives Or (b) Joint Committees Of The Management And The Workpeople. As The Works Became Organized In Trade Unions, Official Shop Representatives, Known As Shop ...

Prevention Of Accidents In
Prevention Of Accidents In America The Prevention Of Industrial Accidents, Or As It Is Popularly Termed In The United States, "industrial Safety Work," Is That Activity Undertaken By The Employer Or In Some Cases By Groups Of Employers, To Remove The Physical Causes Of Accidents And To Encourage Safe Practices ...

Principle Of Identity
Identity, Principle Of. Identity Means Sameness, And A Thing Can Only Be The Same As Itself. Two Or More Things May Be Very Similar To Each Other ; They Cannot Be The Same As Each Other, Except In The Sense Of "extremely Similar To One Another"— A Sense In Which ...

Purchasing Power
Purchasing Power (a) In The Measurement Of The Purchasing Power Of Money In General It Is Argued That The Prices Of All Commodities, Not Subject To Regulation Or Monopoly, Are Equally Significant. Theoretically The Problem Is One Of Pure Sampling, And The Precision Of The Result In Any Year Is ...

Rating And Performance
Rating And Performance It Is Shown Above That The Brake Horse Power Of A Single-acting Four-stroke Petrol Engine With N Cylinders Is Expressed By : • • • Snnxio (i) For Rating Purposes In Car And Motor-boat Competitions It Was Found Necessary At An Early Date To Have Some Formula ...

Robert Green Ingersoll
Ingersoll, Robert Green American Lawyer And Lecturer, Was Born In Dresden (n.y.), Aug. Ii, 1833. His Father Was A Congregational Minister, Who Removed To Wis Consin In 1843 And To Illinois In 1845. Robert Ingersoll Was Admitted To The Bar In 1854, And Practised Law With Success In Illinois. During ...

Second Group Of Families
Second Group Of Families In The Second Group Of Families, Which Contains All The Remain Ing Insectivora, The Pelvic Symphysis Is Either Lacking Or Formed Merely By The Epiphyses Of The Pubes; And The Orbit And Tern Poral Region Of The Skull Are Confluent. With The Exception Of The Talpidae ...

Sects
Sects.) Order X. Embioptera.—soft-bodied Insects With Two Pairs Of Elongate, Smoky Wings Of Equal Size And With Degenerate Veins. Mouth-parts For Biting: Tarsi Three-jointed, First Joint Of F Ore Pair Greatly Swollen: Cerci, Short Two-jointed. Females Almost Always Wingless. A Small Group Of Insects Often Living Gregariously In Silken Web-like ...

Selwyn Image
Image, Selwyn (1849-193o), English Illustrator And Designer, Was Born At Bodiam, Sussex. He Was Educated At Marl Borough, And New College, Oxford, And Received His Art Training At The Slade School, Oxford, Under Ruskin. In 1872 He Was Ordained Deacon And In 1878 Priest, Having Been A Curate At All ...

Siam
Siam The Architecture Of Siam Is Not Well Known. No Edifice Of Im Portance Survives From The Dvaravati (mon) Period, But The Brah Pathamacetiya Reliefs Have Decorative Representations Of Buildings With Caitya Arches (kiidu), Suggesting, As In The Case Of The Contemporary Pre-khmer Architecture Of Cambodia, Direct Connections With Indian ...

Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield
Inglefield, Sir Edward Augustus (1820 1894), British Admiral And Explorer, Was Born At Cheltenham, On March 27, 1820, And Educated At The Royal Naval College, Ports Mouth. The Boy Went To Sea At Fourteen, Saw Service On The Syrian Coast In 184o, And In 1845 Was Promoted Commander For Gallant ...

Sir Elijah Impey
Impey, Sir Elijah Chief Justice Of Bengal, Was Born On June 13, 1732, And Educated At Westminster With Warren Hastings, Who Was His Intimate Friend Throughout Life. In 1773 He Was Appointed The First Chief Justice Of The New Su Preme Court At Calcutta, And In 1775 Presided At The ...

Sir John Eardley Wilmot
Inglis, Sir John Eardley Wilmot (1814 1862), British Major-general, Son Of John Inglis, Third Bishop Of Nova Scotia, Was Born In Nova Scotia On Nov. 15, 1814. In 1833 He Joined The 32nd Foot, In Which All His Regimental Service Was Passed. In 1837 He Saw Active Service In Canada ...

Sir William Inglis
Inglis, Sir William (1764-1835), British General, Born In 1764, Entered The Army In 1781. After Ten Years In America He Served In Flanders, Taking Part In The Capture Of St. Lucia. In 1809 He Commanded A Brigade In The Peninsula, Taking Part In The Battle Of Busaco (181 O) And ...

Social Insects
Social Insects.) Order Xi. Psocoptera (corrodentia) .—very Small Sof T Bodied Insects, Winged Or Wingless : Wings Membranous With Few Veins, Anterior Pair The Larger With Extensive Stigma. Mouth Parts For Biting: Tarsi Two- Or Three-jointed: Cerci Wanting. In Cludes The Book-lice And Their Allies. The Small Recently Discov Ered ...

Special Types Of Internal
Special Types Of Internal Combustion Engines The Humphrey Internal Combustion Pump.—if The Water Within A Partially Filled, Vertically Placed U-tube Be Dis Placed It Will Perform Nearly Isochronous Oscillations About Its Position Of Rest. H. A. Humphrey (1906-9) Has Ingeniously Utilized The Oscillatory Motion Of A Large Water-column To Effect ...

St Bernard
Bernard, St., Of Clairvaux). But It Must Be Noticed That From The Opening Years Of The 12th Century Date The Beginnings Of A Decided Evolution In The Canon Law, Continuing Up To The Time Of Innocent Iii., Which Substi Tuted For Arbitrary Decisions According To Circumstances An Organ Ized And ...

Stafford Henry Northcote Iddesleigh
Iddesleigh, Stafford Henry Northcote, Ist Earl Of (1818-1887), British Statesman, Was Born In Lon Don, On Oct. 27, 1818. On Leaving Balliol College, Oxford, He Be Came In 1843 Private Secretary To Gladstone At The Board Of Trade. He Was Afterwards Legal Secretary To The Board; And After Acting As ...

State And Worker
State And Worker Labour Legislation.—in Recent Years, Labour Legislation Has Been Largely Promoted By Public Groups Composed Neither Exclu Sively Of Employers Or Of Unions. Progress, However, Has Been Hampered By The Individualist Traditions Of The Country. Then Again, Though There Were Many Examples Of Unsatisfactory Conch Dons In Factories, ...

Statement Of Loans And
Statement Of Loans And Funding Agreements Great Britain.—for Great Britain The Figures In Table Ii. Are Taken From The Financial Statement Of The Chancellor Of The Ex Chequer, House Of Commons Report No. 84 Of 1925, But The Figures In Most Cases Were Altered On Final Adjustment And Are Only ...

Struction And Planning Office
Struction And Planning ; Office Management.) At An Early Stage The Young Science Of Industrial Psychology Had To Encounter The Previous Application Of Quasi-scientific Methods To Industry, Initiated In America By Taylor And Gil Breth. Their General Object Was To Study The Nature And Rate Of The Movements Made By ...

Sub Order I Symphyta
Sub-order I. Symphyta Abdomen With No Definite Basal Constriction Or Waist: Trochan Ters Two-jointed. Larvae Generally Caterpillars With A Variable Number Of Legs. Superfamily Tenthredinoidea (fig. 5). Included In This Division Are All The More Primitive Members Of The Order : They Do Not Exhibit The Specialized Habits And Instincts ...

Sub Order Ii Apocrita
Sub-order Ii. Apocrita Abdomen With A Basal Constriction Or Waist: Trochanters Z- Or 2-jointed. Larvae Embryonic Or Vermiform Without Legs. The Great Group Is Divisible Into The Parasitica Which Generally Have 2-jointed Trochanters And The Aculeata Or Stinging Forms In Which The Trochanters Are Single Jointed. The Parasitica Include The ...

Sumatra
Sumatra Sumatra, Suvarnabhumi, The "land Of Gold," Yavadvipa Of Early Indian Literature, Received Indian Colonists Probably Before The Christian Era; In The 5th Century Mahayana Buddhism Was Officially Adopted As A Result Of A Royal Mission From Kashmir. I Ching Passed By Palembang About 690 And Found Here A Great ...

Sunga And Early Andhra
Maurya, Sunga And Early Andhra Periods Maurya : Asoka.—with The Maurya Period, And Especially The Reign Of Asoka, We Meet For The First Time With Sculptural And Architectural Monuments In Stone. These Fall More Or Less Definitely Into Two Groups, (i) The Court Art Of Asoka, And (2) The Popular ...

Terrestrial Magnetism
Terrestrial Magnetism). Inclinometers Are Of Two Distinct Classes, Viz., Dip Circles And Induction Inclinometers, Often Called Earth Inductors. ...

The Buddhist Period
The Buddhist Period The Systems Called Jainism And Buddhism Had Their Roots In Prehistoric Philosophies, But Were Founded Respectively By Vard Hamana Mahavira And Gotama Buddha, Both Of Whom Were Preaching In Magadha During The Reign Of Bimbisara (c. 52o B.c.). The Emperor Asoka.—during The Next Two Hundred Years Buddhism ...

The Debt Settlements
The Debt Settlements Before Even The Last Inter-ally Loans Had Been Made, It Was Clear That The Problem Of Repayment Would Assume An Importance In International Politics Second Only To The Question Of Reparations. Soon After The Armistice It Became Known That The British Gov Ernment Favoured A General Cancellation ...

The Epic Period
The Epic Period The Systems Of Materialism, Jainism And Buddhism, Belong To The Epic Period, Which Is The Age Of Reconstruction. Materialism.—materialism Is Called Lokayata (directed To The World), As It Holds That Only This World (loka) Is Real. According To It, Perception Is The Only Source Of Knowledge. Inference ...

The Future Of Infantry
The Future Of Infantry If We Recognize As We Must That Infantry As Constituted And Trained To-day Can Make No Headway Against Machine-guns In Normal Open Country, Where Will Be Their Place On A Future Battle Field? Should We Be Content To Regard Them Merely As A Human Reservoir For ...

The Ilo In Operation
The I.l.o. In Operation The First Conference Was Convoked At Washington In Oct. 1919. The International Office Was Not Yet Constituted. The Programme Of The Conference Had Been Fixed In The Peace Treaty Itself, And A Committee Of Organization Entrusted With Its Preparation. Six Draft Conventions Were Voted Concerning: (1) ...

The Imitation Of Christ
Imitation Of Christ, The (imitatio Christi), The Title Of A Famous Mediaeval Christian Devotional Work, Much Used Still By Both Catholics And Protestants And Usually Ascribed To Thomas A Kempis. The Prolonged Controversy Over The Author Ship Of The Work Has At The Present Time Been Narrowed Down To The ...

The Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception, The. This Dogma Of The Roman Catholic Church Was Defined As "of Faith" By Pope Pius Ix. In The Bull Ine Ff Abilis Deus (dec. 8, 1854) In The Fol Lowing Terms : "the Doctrine Which Holds That The Blessed Virgin Mary, From The First Instant Of Her ...

The Indian Desert
Indian Desert, The. Between The Ancient Aravalli Mountains And The Wall-like Front Of The Recently Folded Arcs Which Carry The Indo-baluchistan Frontier, And From The Shores Of The Arabian Sea To Within An Average Distance Of C. 8o M. From The Himalayas, Extends A Lowland Exceeding 200,000 Sq.m., With An ...

The Indian Mutiny
Indian Mutiny, The,. The Great Revolt Of The Ben Gal Native Army In 1857 Which Led To The Transference Of The Government Of India From The East India Company To The Crown In 1858. This Mutiny, Accompanied By Rebellion Of The Popula Tion In Many Parts And Of Some Of ...

The Indian States
The Indian States The Relations Now Subsisting Between The Indian States And The British Government Are The Outcome Of An Evolutionary Process Which Still Continues. The Mutiny, The Passing Of The East India Co. And The Grant Of Sands Of Adoption To The Rulers In 1862 Obliterated The Peril Of ...

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution, The. When We Say Of A Society That It Has Passed Through The Industrial Revolution We Have In Mind A Definite Picture Of Its Life And Power. We Are Thinking Of A Society That Makes Great Use Of Machinery, Con Ducts Its Operations In Industry And Commerce On ...

The Industrial Workers Of
Industrial Workers Of The World, The, Commonly Known As The I.w.w., A Revolutionary Labour Union Organization Which Played In The Early Loth Century A Considera Ble Part In American And World Labour History. It Was Founded In July I9o5 At Chicago, Ill., As A Result Of A Conference Of Social ...

The Inquisition
Inquisition, The. The Name Given To The Ecclesiasti Cal Jurisdiction Dealing Both In The Middle Ages And In Later Times With The Detection And Punishment Of Heretics And All Per Sons Guilty Of Any Offence Against Catholic Orthodoxy. (lat. Inquisitio, An Inquiry.) It Is Incorrect To Say That The Inquisition ...

The International Advertising Association
International Advertising Association, The, According To Its Printed Constitution, Is An Organization The, According To Its Printed Constitution, Is An Organization "for The Purpose Of Furthering The Best Interest Of Advertising." It Is Strictly A Business Association And Is Maintained By Business Men And Advertisers In The Belief That Any ...

The International Harvester Company
International Harvester Company, The, For Many Years A Leader In The Manufacture Of Farm-operating Equipment, And Also A Large Manufacturer Of Farm And Industrial Tractors And Motor Trucks Was Originally Formed In I9o2 Under The Laws Of New Jersey, And Acquired At That Time The Farm Implement Properties And Businesses ...

The International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization, The. This Organization Was Created In 1919 By Part Xiii. Of The. This Organization Was Created In 1919 By Part Xiii. Of The Treaty Of Versailles, Headed "labour." This Part Was Repro Duced In All The Later Peace Treaties, Appearing As Part Xiii. Of The Treaties Of ...

The International
International, The. A Number Of International As Sociations Or Congresses Of Labour And Socialist Bodies Have At Various Times Adopted The Title Of The "international," And Three Of Them Are Of Historic Importance. The First Of These, Having For Its Full Title The International Working Men's Association, Was Established In ...

The Letter I Of
The Letter I Of The Alphabet. This Letter Corresponds To Semitic 9 (yod) And Greek I (iota) . Early Greek Forms From The Island Of Thera Were S And S, Which Obviously More Closely Resemble The Semitic Than The Later Single Vertical Stroke. In Attic Inscriptions Also The Form Fp ...

The Macroscelididae
The Macroscelididae In Africa The T U Pains Are Represented By The Jumping And Elephant Shrews Constituting The Family Macroscelididae, Dis Tinguished From The Tupaiidae By The Absence Of The Bony Rings Around The Orbits, The Latter Being Separated From The Hinder Part Of The Skull Merely By The Post-orbital ...

The Nyaya
The Nyaya Logic As Epistemology May Be Called A Critical Reflection On Metaphysics. The V Aisesika, Which Deals With The Analysis Of Nature, Is Earlier Than The Nyaya, Which Discusses The Problem Of Knowledge; Yet We Start With The Latter, As It Gives The Main Logical Principles Assumed By The ...

The Purva Mimamsa
The Purva Mimamsa The Purva Mimamsa Has For Its Special Object The Ascertain Ment Of Duty (dharma). It Is Not A Philosophical System, Though It Refers To Philosophical Topics Incidentally. It Believes In The Real Ity Of The World And The Individual Souls. As It Deals With Ritual Specially, It ...

The Saivikhya
The Saivikhya The Samkhya Is A Reaction Against The Idealistic Monism Of The Upanishads. It Believes In A Real Matter And An Infinite Plurality Of Individual Souls Which Are Not Emanations Of A Single World-soul. The Sarimkhya Adopts The View That The Cause And The Effect Are The Undeveloped And ...